The International Migration of the Highly Skilled: Demand, Supply, and Development Consequences for Sending and Receiving Countries

Edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Thomas J. Espenshade, and Idean Salehyan
Copyright 2001, 418 pages, paperback. ISBN 0-97028

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The demand for skilled labor is rising dramatically worldwide to meet the needs of a global economy driven by high-technology goods and services. Advanced industrial societies—the United States, Japan, the countries of Western Europe—are becoming more dependent on foreign scientists, engineers, and computer programmers to propel their economic growth. And emerging economies—such as India, China, and South Africa—are increasingly recognizing the need to stem the outflow of their own domestic professionals.

The International Migration of the Highly Skilled examines the scale and significance of these international flows of highly skilled workers. The seventeen contributors (political scientists, sociologists, economists, and anthropologists) bring to the field a broad range of perspectives on the global market for high-skilled labor. They examine the legal history of skilled immigration to the United States and Canada, the “brain drain” phenomenon, immigrant entrepreneurship and immigrant niches, and recent changes in immigration policy making.

The book includes several case studies analyzing the experiences of both sending and receiving countries. The authors offer a timely foundation for current and future policy discussions concerning high-skill migration. Despite the current economic downturn in the United States and other receiving countries, knowledge-intensive sectors of their economies will continue to grow and will continue to depend on the contributions of skilled migrants.

Contents

* INTRODUCTION.

* The International Migration of the Highly Skilled: “High-Tech Braceros” in the Global Labor Market—Wayne A. Cornelius and Thomas J. Espenshade.

* RECEIVING COUNTRY EXPERIENCES: THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA.

* The Evolution of U.S. Policy toward Employment-Based Immigrants and Temporary Workers: The H—1B Debate in Historical Perspective Margaret L. Usdansky and Thomas J. Espenshade.

* Immigration of Scientists and Engineers to the United States: Issues and Evidence—Jessica C. Gurcak, Thomas J. Espenshade, Aaron Sparrow, and Martha Paskoff.

* Asian Immigrant Engineers in Canada—Monica Boyd.

* TEMPORARY HIGH-SKILLED MIGRATION: THE H—1B DEBATE IN THE UNITED STATES.

* New Dilemmas of Policy-Making in Transnational Labor Markets—Robert L. Bach.

* The Foreign Temporary Workforce and Shortages in Information Technology—B. Lindsay Lowell.

* IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ETHNIC NICHES.

* Self-Employment and Earnings among High-Skilled Immigrants in the United States—Magnus Lofstrom.

* Silicon Valley’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs—AnnaLee Saxenian.

* Immigrant Niches in the U.S. High-Technology Industry—Rafael Alarcón.

* Unskilled Immigrants in High-Tech Companies: The Case of Mexican Janitors in Silicon Valley—Christian Zlolniski.

* SENDING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVES.

* The Migration of High-Skilled Workers from Canada to the United States: The Economic Basis of the Brain Drain—Mahmood Iqbal.

* The Emigration of High-Skilled Indian Workers to the United States: Flexible Citizenship and India’s Information Economy—Paula Chakravartty.

* Rethinking Migration: On-Line Labor Flows from India to the United States—A. Aneesh.

* CONCLUSION.

* High-Skilled Immigration and the U.S. National Interest—Marc Rosenblum.