CCIS Hosts US Army War College


On February 8, CCIS hosted the US Army War College for a morning briefing. High-ranking officers from more than 20 countries, including Canada, India, South Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland and Senegal, attended the session. The panelists were David Mares, who spoke on “Post-Drug War Visions: What Comes after 40 Years?,” David FitzGerald on “The Effects of Migration Control Measures on Unauthorized Migration to the United States,” Amada Armenta on ” Policing Immigrants: Dilemmas of Interior Immigration Enforcement,” and John Skrentny on “The Politics of Immigration.”

Jennifer Hochschild — Genomic Science, Ancestry, and Racial Construction: New Complexity in the American Racial Order

 

Genomic Science, Ancestry, and Racial Construction: New Complexity in the American Racial Order

Seminar to be held in ERC 115 at 2:00 pm.

Jennifer L. Hochschild is Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor of Government at Harvard University, with a joint appointment in the Department of African and African American Studies and a lectureship in the Harvard Kennedy School. She taught at Princeton University before moving to Harvard in 2000. Hochschild recently co-edited (with John Mollenkopf) Bringing Outsiders In: Transatlantic Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation (Cornell University Press, 2009), and recently co-authored (with Brenna Powell), “Racial Reorganization and the United States Census 1850-1930: Mulattoes, Half-Breeds, Mixed Parentage, Hindoos, and the Mexican Race” (Studies in American Political Development 2008). Current book projects include Transforming the American Racial Order: Immigration, Multiracialism, DNA, and Cohort Change (co-authored) and Facts in Politics: What Do Citizens Know and What Difference Does It Make? Hochschild was founding editor of Perspectives on Politics, vice-chair of the Board of Trustees of Russell Sage Foundation, and program co-chair for the annual convention of the American Political Science Association. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Patrick Simon — Beyond assimilation: The Second Generation in France

Beyond assimilation: The Second Generation in France

 

Seminar to be held in ERC 115 at 2:00 pm.
After being one of the most renowned “assimilationnist’s country” in the world, France has recently been engaged in quick changes in its framing of incorporation of “immigrants”. Indeed, not only the concepts and theories used to portray the processes behind the “remaking of the French mainstream” have dramatically changed but the categories of those targeted by these processes have also been renewed. Access of “new second generations” (i.e. those born from the waves of immigration of the 1950s and 1960s) to the job market and their visibility in social, political and cultural life have challenged the “French model of integration”.

This presentation will confront the normative model of integration, the so-called republican model, to the prospects of the second generation. I will argue that the salience of race and ethnicity for minority members in contemporary France is challenging the expectations of a convergence in norms, values and practices at the second generation. A specific attention will be given to the role played by religion (Islam) and political participation. Data come from a new survey Trajectories and Origins: a survey on population diversity in France, which is the largest survey ever done in France on immigrants and second generation. Promoted by INED and the French National Statistical Institute (INSEE), the survey gathered information via a long questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews to 22 000 respondents from 5 specific sub-samples: Immigrants (8300), descendents of Immigrants (8200), Overseas French (700), descendents of Overseas French (700) and “mainstream population” (3900). The questionnaire covers wide-ranging areas of social experience (education, employment, housing, family formation, language, religion, transnational ties, political participation and citizenship…) and focuses on experiences of discrimination and identity. Findings on religion, political participation, employment, neighborhoods and discrimination will be presented to support the thesis of an ongoing process of racialization of the French society and the rise of ethnic and racial minorities.

Patrick Simon is Director of research at INED (Institut National d’Etudes Demographiques –National demographic institute) (F) and is fellow researcher at the Center of European Studies (CEE) at Sciences Po. He is currently Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation in NYC and Fullbright Fellow. Train as socio-demographer at EHESS (Doctoral degree circa 1994), he has studied social and ethnic segregation in French cities, antidiscrimination policies and the integration of ethnic minorities in European countries. He has participated to several European projects, such as URBEX (The spatial dimensions of Urban Social Exclusion and Integration) and EMILIE (A European Approach to Multicultural Citizenship. Legal Political and Educational Challenges). He is coordinating the RTN TIES funded by Marie Curie funds. He is chairing the scientific panel “Integration of immigrants” at the IUSSP (International Union for the Scientific Studies of Population) and has been appointed as a member of the Scientific Board of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Commission in Vienna.

John Skrentny — Does Race-Consciousness Affect Diversity

AALS

John Skrentny presents research at the panel “Does Race-Consciousness Affect Diversity?” at the Association of American Law Schools 2011 Annual Meeting in San Francisco.  Other panelists included Richard T. Ford (Stanford Law School), Ann Morning (Sociology, NYU), Angela I. Onwuachi-Willig (University of Iowa College of Law), Camille Gear Rich (University of Southern California Gould School of Law), and Tristin K. Green (moderator, University of San Francisco School of Law).

Q&A: UCSD immigration expert Wayne Cornelius on why the Dream Act went down

MULTI-AMERICAN

The defeat in the Senate last Saturday of the Dream Act, which would have granted conditional legal status to qualifying undocumented college students, graduates and military hopefuls who arrived here before age 16, was just the most recent action on a proposal that has been circulating for nearly a decade. And each time it has come up for a vote, UC San Diego’s Wayne Cornelius has followed it, as he has every other federal immigration proposal that has come and gone since then.

Cornelius is one of the nation’s leading scholars on immigration and U.S.-Mexico border issues, a political scientist and director emeritus of UCSD’s Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. He is now associate director of the university’s Center of Expertise on Migration and Health.

After years of observing the politics of immigration, Cornelius has his own take on why the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act failed this time around, in spite of unprecedented student activism and a streamlining of the bill that allowed it to clear the House. He shares his opinion on the Obama administration’s strategy of pushing tough enforcement as a means to win support for broader immigration reform, a strategy he believes is doomed to fail.

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Patrick Weil — Comparative Citizenship Laws: Recent Transformations

 

Seminar to be held in ERC 115 at 2:00 pm.

Abstract for Professor Weil’s talk coming soon!

Patrick Weil is a Visiting Professor of Law and Robina Foundation International Fellow at Yale Law School and a senior research fellow at the French National Research Center in the University of Paris, Pantheon-Sorbonne.  Professor Weil’s work focuses on comparative immigration, citizenship, and Church States law and policy.  His most recent publications are How to be French?  A Nationality in the Making since 1789, from Duke University Press, “Why the French Laïcité is Liberal, Cardozo Law Review, June 2009, Vol. 30, Number 6, 2699-2714 and (with Son-Thierry Ly), “The Anti-racist Origins of the American Immigration Quota System.” Social Research, Volume 77, Number 1 (Spring 2010) pp.45-79.

Dr. Weil has worked extensively with the French government including participation in a 2003 French Presidential Commission on secularism, established by Jacques Chirac, and preparation of a report on immigration and nationality policy reform for Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in 1997 which led to the implementation of new immigration laws adopted the following year.  Dr. Weil also holds an appointment as Professor at the Paris School of Economics.

Fake CVs reveal discrimination against Muslims in French job market

BY ED YONG   NOVEMBER 22, 2010

Mosque

Meet Khadija Diouf. She is 24 years old, she’s single, she lives in France and she has spent the last three years working in secretarial and accounting jobs. Her surname tells us that she’s descended from Senegalese immigrants, and her first name strongly suggests that she’s Muslim. Hundreds of employers across France will have seen Khadija’s name and none of them would have known the most important thing about her: she doesn’t exist.

Khadija is one of three fake women invented by Claire Adida from the University of California, San Diego. They are all part of a clever experiment that reveals how the French job market is rife with discrimination against Muslims. Adida found that in at least two sectors, a Muslim candidate is around 2.5 times less likely to get a job interview than a Christian one, with all else being equal. These results were backed up by a large survey, which showed that among second-generation Senegalese immigrants, Muslim households earn far less than Christian equivalents.

To some, this won’t come as a surprise, for modern Europe doesn’t exactly seem like a welcome place to be a Muslim. In France, the Senate voted almost unanimously to ban women from wearing Islamic face-veils in public, a move that drew widespread support from other countries. Swiss voters approved a constitutional amendment to ban the construction of new minarets on mosques. In the UK, ridiculous headlines in so-called newspapers regularly portray Muslims as an identically-minded group, out to distort ‘traditional’ values, kill people and generally cause trouble. Negative opinions are growing everywhere.

These examples of religious discrimination are obvious and blatant, but others – such as prejudice in the workplace – are harder to uncover. Adida did it by focusing on France’s Senegalese community, which includes a mix of both Muslims and Christians. To see how they would compare on the job market, Adida created three imaginary CVs. All were single, 24-year-old women, with two years of higher education and three years of experience in secretarial or accounting jobs. Only their names, and small details about past employers, differed.

Khadija Diouf had a well-known Muslim first name and an obvious Senegalese surname and had worked with Secours Islamique, a humanitarian organisation. Marie Diouf had worked for its counterpart Secours Catholique and had an obvious Christian first name. And Aurélie Ménard had a typical French name with no religious connotations and had only worked for secular firms.

In the spring of 2009, Adida collected ads for secretarial and accounting jobs from the French national employment agency and grouped them into pairs, matched for area, sector, company size and position. For each pair, both received Aurélie’s CV while one received Khadija’s and one received Marie’s.

The results were striking. Marie Diouf got a positive response on 21% of her applications; she was clearly an employable (if fictional) young woman. But Khadija Diouf – her exact equal in virtually every respect – got callbacks from just 8% of her applications. For every 100 interviews that Marie was called for, Khadija was summoned for just 38. Even after Adida included a photo on the applications (the same one, showing a woman who was clearly not North African), she found the same bias.

Khadija_Marioe

It was impossible to send both Marie and Khadija’s CVs (which were virtually identical) to the same recruiter, given that they were identical except for a few names. Alarm bells would have rung. Nonetheless, it’s clear that Adida matched pairs of recruiters as well as possible, given that Aurélie’s odds of getting interviews were the same no matter which employer read her CV.

Adida essentially did the closest possible thing to a randomised trial (the gold standard in medicine), by assigning identical ‘people’ to be either Christian or Muslim and seeing how they fare. In her own words, “This experiment thus provides a clear indication that in at least one sector of the French labor market… there is significant religious discrimination.”

The strength of Adida’s experiment lies in isolating the effects of religion from the package of cultural traits that accompany it. That’s far from easy. In European countries, Muslim immigrants tend to come from the same place. In the UK, they largely hail from South Asia. In France, they mostly come from northern Africa.

If Muslims in these countries suffer socially and economically, religious discrimination is just one possible explanation. Others include racial or geographical discrimination (north Africa, for example, has a history of conflict against French imperialism), or differences in education, language or culture in one’s home country. An experiment that tries to look at religious discrimination needs to somehow hold all of those other factors equal. That’s exactly what Adida managed to do.

She also found that the discrimination that her fake applicants faced can directly affect the lives of real Muslims. She relied on a survey done in 2009 by David Laitin, looking at issues of integration among 511 second-generation Senegalese Muslims. Notably, the survey only looked at two ethnic groups – the Joolas and Serers – who have Christian and Muslim members in equal measure. Both groups arrived in France in the 1970s, so neither enjoyed an economic headstart, although the Christians were slightly better educated.

The survey’s data revealed that the Muslim households were significantly poorer than their Christian counterparts, even after adjusting for their initial educational advantage. They’re more likely to fall into poorer income groups and they make around 400 Euros less per month, around 15% of the average monthly salary in France.

Muslim_Christian_households

If anything, this just scratches the surface of anti-Muslim discrimination in France. There is a common view in France that Senegalese Muslims aren’t “real” Muslims because they have know little Arabic and because they socialise with Africans of all religions. The level of discrimination faced by groups that are more clearly linked with Islam might be even greater. The big question now is why, and it’s something that Adida plans to explore in future studies, using interviews, psychological games and more.

For the moment, her current study stands as a rare treat among research into discrimination. Some research goes on in the lab and benefits from careful experiments, but it’s unclear if their results apply in the real world, with all its complexities and vagaries. On the other hand, real-world experiments often struggle to isolate a single factor like religion, from the many others than entangle it. Adida’s work – inspired by a classic experiment on racial discrimination in America – combines both approaches: a careful, real-world experiment that does its best to unveil the effect of religion, with all else being equal.

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Assessing the “Secure Communities” Program and the Impact of 287(g) Agreements

Co-sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Florida

November 18 2010, 8:45 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.

The conference will include two roundtables, the first offering a macro analysis of immigration-related enforcement policies at the national level, the second focused on the experiences of communities throughout the country, where 287 (g) agreements and the Secure Communities program have been implemented. Speakers will include: Maria Hinojosa, senior correspondent, NOW on PBS; David Venturella, executive director, Secure Communities, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement; Don Kerwin, Vice President for Programs, Migration Policy Institute; Jen Smyers, Associate for Immigration and Refugee Policy, Church World Service; Daniel Hernández Joseph, Director General, Protection of Mexicans Abroad, Foreign Relations Ministry (Mexico); Michele Waslin, Senior Policy Analyst, Immigration Policy Center; Chris Newman, National Day Labor Organizing Network; Marty Rosenbluth, North Carolina Immigrant Rights Project; Adelina Nichols, Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights; Leni González, Virginia Latino Advisory Board; and, Brian Stout, Federal Government Liaison, Arlington County (Virginia).

12:00-12:30 p.m.: Presentation on local-level immigration enforcement in Nashville, TN by Amada Armenta, doctoral candidate, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, and a Pre-doctoral Fellow at the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego.

A live Webcast will be available at the link below:

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