Fake CVs reveal discrimination against Muslims in French job market

Meet Khadija Diouf. She is 24 years old, she’s single, she lives in France and she has spent the last three years working in secretarial and accounting jobs. Her surname tells us that she’s descended from Senegalese immigrants, and her first name strongly suggests that she’s Muslim. Hundreds of employers across France will have seen Khadija’s name and none of them would have known the most important thing about her: she doesn’t exist.

Khadija is one of three fake women invented by Claire Adida from the University of California, San Diego, and CCIS Research Associate. They are all part of a clever experiment that reveals how the French job market is rife with discrimination against Muslims. Adida found that in at least two sectors, a Muslim candidate is around 2.5 times less likely to get a job interview than a Christian one, with all else being equal. These results were backed up by a large survey, which showed that among second-generation Senegalese immigrants, Muslim households earn far less than Christian equivalents.

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Assessing the “Secure Communities” Program and the Impact of 287(g) Agreements

Co-sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Florida

November 18 2010, 8:45 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.

The conference will include two roundtables, the first offering a macro analysis of immigration-related enforcement policies at the national level, the second focused on the experiences of communities throughout the country, where 287 (g) agreements and the Secure Communities program have been implemented. Speakers will include: Maria Hinojosa, senior correspondent, NOW on PBS; David Venturella, executive director, Secure Communities, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement; Don Kerwin, Vice President for Programs, Migration Policy Institute; Jen Smyers, Associate for Immigration and Refugee Policy, Church World Service; Daniel Hernández Joseph, Director General, Protection of Mexicans Abroad, Foreign Relations Ministry (Mexico); Michele Waslin, Senior Policy Analyst, Immigration Policy Center; Chris Newman, National Day Labor Organizing Network; Marty Rosenbluth, North Carolina Immigrant Rights Project; Adelina Nichols, Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights; Leni González, Virginia Latino Advisory Board; and, Brian Stout, Federal Government Liaison, Arlington County (Virginia).

12:00-12:30 p.m.: Presentation on local-level immigration enforcement in Nashville, TN by Amada Armenta, doctoral candidate, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, and a Pre-doctoral Fellow at the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego.

A live Webcast will be available at the link below:

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Whose jobs are done by illegal immigrants?

The role of illegal immigrants has become even more critical because Americans are, on average, much more educated now than half a century ago. The economy needs immigrants to fill the low-skill jobs, some economists say.

In an ideal world, the United States would let in enough foreign workers to do the jobs unwanted by most U.S.-born workers, said Gordon Hanson, an economics professor at the University of California at San Diego and CCIS Research Associate, who grew up in Fresno.

But America’s restrictive immigration system doesn’t allow that. So illegal immigrants fill in the gaps by being the first to enter the country when there are jobs and the first to leave when jobs dry up.
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Are taxpayers stuck paying the bill for illegal immigrants?

Illegal immigrants still help the economy because their cheap labor drives down the cost of products and services, an issue The Bee will examine Thursday. But those savings are canceled by the cost to government services, at least on a national level, some economists say.

In the Central Valley, their positive and negative impacts are amplified because of our dependence on them. Businesses benefit in a big way while taxpayers cover the costs.

“Residents have to pick up the tab, and employers get away with paying those workers less,” said Gordon Hanson, an economics professor at the University of California at San Diego and CCIS Research Associate.

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Even though many are paid under the table for housecleaning, yard work and day labor, most work for companies that deduct taxes from their pay. Illegal immigrants also pay sales taxes and property taxes.

Several research organizations estimate that about 55 percent of illegal immigrants are paid on the books, with taxes withheld. The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies found that 75 percent of illegal immigrants in 2006 were taxed.

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Pregnant pay premium to get into US

Development: On 11 November the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) published a report on the prices illegal Mexican immigrants pay to get into the US.

Significance: The DHS working paper argues that the effort and expense the US has put into reinforcing its southwestern border between 1993 and 2006 has pushed up the price illegal migrants have to pay to get into the US. The DHS reckons that the price illegal migrants have to pay people traffickers jumped from US$600 a head in 1993 to US$1,500 in 2007. Pregnant migrants usually pay even more. The DHS working paper found that 95% of first-time crossers used people smugglers in 2006.

The DHS admits that its estimate of the cost of being smuggled into the US is at the lower end of the spectrum. The Mexican Migration Field Research and Training Program survey (MMFRP) puts the 2006 price at well over US$2,250.

What is fascinating about the DHS working paper is how tentative its conclusions are. It points out that there is little evidence on whether people smugglers have tried to lower their unit costs by smuggling other goods (such as drugs) into the US alongside people.

The links the DHS does make are pointed: it cites an academic study which suggests that a 10% decline in Mexican wages compared with US wages leads to a 6% increase in border apprehensions. In the past 12 months border apprehensions have dropped by 17%, year-on-year, to 473,000. This suggests that potential Mexican migrants now calculate that the risks of crossing into the US are higher than the potential rewards.

“What Does East Asia Tell Us about Europe? The Case of Immigration Policy”

The Center for European Studies

The Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies is dedicated to fostering the study of European history, politics, culture and society at Harvard. Through our graduates, who go on to teach others about Europe and to many other roles in society, the Center sustains America’s knowledge base about Europe, an important contribution to international understanding in difficult times. 

Harvard University
Friday, November 5, 2010
2:15 PM – 4:00 PM, Cabot Room, Busch Hall

John Skrentny
Professor of Sociology
University of California-San Diego

Exclusion and Inclusion in an Expanded Europe Study Group

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A Chance to Get Immigration Reform Right

Recent immigration reform proposals, such as Arizona’s SB1070, have focused on curtailing illegal immigration through increased border enforcement and deportation of unauthorized residents. But border enforcement is expensive and often ineffective. In addition, while foreign workers benefit the U.S. economy–whether they’ve entered legally or illegally–they also increase the tax burden on U.S. citizens. In Regulating Low-Skilled Immigration in the United States (AEI Press, 2010), Gordon H. Hanson, director of the Center on Pacific Economies and CCIS Research Associate, outlines principles for immigration reform that will balance these fiscal costs and benefits. Successful reform, he argues, must attract in-demand workers who have strong incentives to assimilate and be economically productive, but will not place excessive demands on public services.

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Stephen Lee — Unauthorized Migrant, Information Policy, and Workplace Enforcement.

 

Seminar to be held in ERC 115 at 2:00 pm.


Professor Stephen Lee researches at the intersection of administrative law and immigration law and has been published in the Stanford Law Review and California Law Review. Prior to joining UCI School of Law, Professor Lee was a fellow at Stanford Law School, clerked for Judge Schroeder on the Ninth Circuit, and practiced at Skadden, Arps. Taking an expansive view of noncitizen rights, his current research examines the regulation of unauthorized migrants in the workplace. Professor Lee graduated from Berkeley Law in 2005.

UA-linked effort looks at crossers, effect of violence

The Ford Foundation also funds the University of California-San Diego’s Mexican Migration Field Research Program, whose research is based on interviews with illegal border crossers. Researchers with that program conduct interviews in three Mexican communities with varying illegal-migration patterns and socioeconomic status.

A focus on how border enforcement is affecting migration is crucial, said Jonathan Hicken, a research associate with the Mexican Migration Field Research Program. The survey research adds a more human element missed in other, non-interview-based efforts, he said.

“It’s in our best interest for programs like this to start sprouting up everywhere,” Hicken said of the UA program.

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