The Politics of Naturalization in Europe, Asia, and North America

Introduction and Panel 1. Europe
 

Panel 2. North America
 

Panel 3. Asia
 

Conference Report »

UC San Diego. May 20, 2011.

The Weaver Conference Center.

How do liberal states make immigrants into nationals? For some observers, a postnational future beckons in which universal rights of personhood strip national identity of its relevance for claiming the rights of citizenship. According to others, transnational migrants can pick and choose their affiliations to multiple polities. For still others, differences between liberal states are becoming obsolete either because official multiculturalism renders the idea of national core cultures illegitimate or the universalistic qualities of liberalism strips states of their national distinction. Even among scholars of nationality and citizenship, the issue of making national difference is often elided by a focus on those features of nationality law that are converging across liberal states.

To what extent is there a convergence in naturalization policies among liberal states that receive large numbers of immigrants? What explains the variation or convergence?

The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies at the University of California, San Diego, will host a conference to assess these questions on Friday, May 20, 2011. Funding is provided by a UCSD International, Comparative, and Area Studies (IIACAS) and Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) International Collaborative Research grant.

In order to RSVP for the event, please contact Ana Minvielle at aminvielle@ucsd.edu.

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“The Politics of Naturalization in Europe, Asia, and North America”

May 20, 2011 at CCIS

SCHEDULE (Rooms subject to change):


9:30-10am

COFFEE AND WELCOME

David FitzGerald, UC San Diego


10am-Noon

PANEL 1: EUROPE

Maarten Vink, Universiteit Maastricht, on national variation in the EU

Sara Wallace Goodman, UC Irvine, on citizenship tests in the EU

Alberto Martín-Pérez, University of Barcelona

Discussant: Jon Fox, University of Bristol


Noon-1pm

LUNCH


1-2:30pm

PANEL 2: NORTH AMERICA

Hiroshi Motomura, UCLA, on the U.S. case

Catherine Dauvergne, University of British Columbia, on the Canadian case

Discussant: Irene Bloemraad, UC Berkeley


2:30-3pm

BREAK


3-4:30pm

PANEL 3: ASIA

Kamal Sadiq, UC Irvine

John Skrentny and Gary Lee, UC San Diego

Discussant: Mara Loveman, University of Wisconsin

Ruben J. Garcia – Labor’s Approach to Immigration: How Does Law Matter?

 

Labor’s Approach to Immigration: How Does Law Matter?

Seminar to be held in ERC 115 at 2:00 pm.
While many U.S. and Canadian unions historically marginalized immigrant workers, by the early 1990s, key unions achieved success organizing immigrant workers and adopted more progressive immigration policies. North America’s major labor federations also made significant changes. The Canadian Labour Congress created a National Anti-Racism Task Force in 1994 to address, among other issues, the links between racism and Canadian immigration policies. In 2000, the AFL-CIO reversed its previous support for legislation that contributed to the discrimination and intimidation of immigrants. Then in 2003, a coalition of major U.S. unions, NGOs and community groups organized the Immigrant Workers Freedom Ride to call attention to the rights of immigrants.

This paper argues that shifts in union immigration policies emerge not only out of demographic changes that generate the need to organize immigrant workers, but also reflect larger changes wrought by processes of economic integration. It also suggests that unions’ adoption of less draconian immigration policies provide new political arenas for transnational labor collaboration. A 1997 campaign conducted by the Teamsters, UFW, and Mexican labor activists to defend the rights of migrant farmworkers who had left their community in Mexico to work in the Washington apple industry provides one example. Another example is advocacy in favor of labor rights for undocumented workers by the AFL-CIO and affiliated unions in court cases. We believe these and other examples will show that transnational links and amicus advocacy led official federation policy on immigration reform. These examples show how social change occurs in large, diffuse organizations.

Ruben J. Garcia is Professor of Law at California Western School of Law in San Diego, where he has taught since 2003. He has held visiting appointments at the University of California, Davis School of Law and at the University of California, San Diego. Professor Garcia received an A.B. from Stanford University, a J.D. from UCLA School of Law, and an LL.M. from the University of Wisconsin Law School.  His research and teaching focus on the ways that race, gender, immigration and globalization impact the law of work. Professor Garcia’s scholarly work has appeared in a number of publications, including the University of Chicago Legal Forum, Hastings Law Journal, Florida State Law Review, Florida Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law, the First Amendment Law Review, and the Journal of Gender, Race and Justice. He is currently finishing a book for New York University Press, titled Marginal Workers: How Legal Fault Lines Divide Workers and Leave Them Without Protection (2011).

John Skrentny on immigration politics at “The Hill”

John Skrentny writes on winning strategies for immigration reform in a political climate of distrust.


Immigration reform: From distrust to direction

BY JOHN D. SKRENTNY   MAY 16, 2011

What accounts for this distrust? The answer is obvious: the federal government’s long-term record is one of highly visible failure.

The lowlight was the bipartisan Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. That law promised to seal the Mexican border, clamp down on employers who hire illegal immigrants, and legalize nearly three million then in the country. For many, this grand bargain became a tragic broken promise, making a mockery of rule of law and cheapening American citizenship. The number of illegal immigrants soared. New industries, notably meatpacking, restaurants and landscaping, joined agriculture in becoming heavily reliant on illegal immigrant labor. Yet the public image of “immigration” is often not of hard-working people tolerating bleak working conditions and low pay, but of news reports showing grainy footage of Mexicans streaming across the border.

Even Obama’s record-setting deportations and unprecedented crackdown on employers have done little to convince restriction-minded voters and lawmakers that the border is or even can be controlled. In this climate, even the targeted legalization bill known as the DREAM Act, which would benefit law-abiding young people who grew up in America and attended college or served in the military, has repeatedly failed.

On Tuesday, Obama hinted—but did not emphasize – something new: change coming from conservative business leaders (he even quoted Rupert Murdoch) and conservative Christian groups as forces for immigration reform.

Why rely on conservative groups? Reformers can learn from the stunning legalization bill passed in March in the deeply red state of Utah. Business and Christian groups in that state re-branded immigration reform as conservative and persuaded the Republican legislature to pass a bill to turn Utah’s illegal aliens into temporary, legal guest workers.

It happened after leaders in the Salt Lake City Chamber of Commerce witnessed convention business fleeing the restrictionist climate in Arizona for Utah. They saw an immigrant-friendly Utah as good for business. The conservative Mormon church joined the cause because its leaders believed that religious and moral teachings dictated welcoming strangers from foreign lands. Their “Utah Compact” pledged support for business- and family-friendly immigration policies guided by a “spirit of inclusion.”

Utah’s story shows reform is possible when change is led not by government or established immigration reform leaders, but by conservative religious groups with moral clout and business leaders with political and economic power.

The other lesson of the Utah story may be harder for reformers to accept: give up on citizenship as a goal. Unlike his July, 2010 speech, when Obama called for illegal immigrants to “earn their citizenship,” on Tuesday he only said they must “get in line for legalization.” This would be smart political strategy for results-oriented reformers.

The legislators in Utah could not offer U.S. citizenship, but national reformers can learn from Utah’s strategy of providing work visas. For years, reformers sought citizenship for the great majority of millions of illegal immigrants, failing under both Republican and Democratic presidents and Congresses. The DREAM Act’s narrowly-targeted pathway to citizenship has similarly failed. Since 1986, many voters strongly resist the full rights of American membership for people they perceive as lawbreakers. Reformers in Washington can follow Utah by providing people without papers with a work- or family-related visa.

Arguably, this is simply kicking the can down the road if these visas are made temporary. But as Obama said on Tuesday, most immigrants come to the U.S. to find work. This lesser prize protects workers from exploitation and American wages. Most importantly, it may break the congressional logjam, making other badly needed immigration reform – such as allowing more foreign talent, streamlining the visa process, reforming temporary visas for tech and agricultural workers—finally possible.

John D. Skrentny is Director of the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies and professor of sociology at the University of California, San Diego and a contributor to Reaching for a New Deal: Ambitious Governance, Economic Meltdown, and Polarized Politics in Obama’s First Two Years.

Read the article »

Immigration at the National and Local Level in Japan

May 6-7, 2011, Weaver Conference Center, UC San Diego

With support from CCIS and participation from co-director David FitzGerald, UC San Diego School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS) hosts a two-day conference featuring leading academics from Japan, Brazil, Australia, and the United States who will examine the impact of future economic growth and community relations in Japan and the United States.

Admission is free, but registration is required.  Click here to register.

For more information, visit the website or contact Lane Ogawa.


Friday, May 6, 2011

Welcome

9:00 a.m. – 9:15 a.m.

Ulrike Schaede, UC San Diego and Kazuhisa Nishihara, Nagoya University

Introduction

9:15 a.m. – 10:00 a.m.

Ulrike Schaede, UC San Diego and Lindsey Sasaki, New York University

Session 1 – What is Immigration and its Implication for Japan, the United States, and Europe?

10:00 a.m. – 12:15 p.m.

- Yuri Okina, Japan Research Institute
“Japan’s challenge with economic growth and demographic situation”
- Teruyuki Komatsu, Nagoya Gakuin University
“Brief history of Japanese immigration abroad since Meiji period”
- Apichai Shipper, University of Southern California
“Japan’s immigration politics in comparative perspective”
- Tadamasa Murai, Nagoya City University
“Japan’s distinct immigration policy in comparison with the U.S.A. and EU”

Discussant
David Fitzgerald, UC San Diego and Nancy Gilson, UC San Diego

Session 2 – The Economic and Demographic Effects of Immigration in Japan and the United States

1:15 p.m. – 2:30 p.m.

- Kyoji Fukao, Hitosubashi University
“The Economic Impact of Migration: Productivity Analysis for Japan and the US at the National and the Local Level”
- Junichi Goto, Keio University
“Aging, Migration, and Female Workers in Japan: The Impact on Future Economic Growth”

Discussant
Gordon Hanson, UC San Diego

Session 3 – The Education and Adaptation of Migrant Children in Japan and the United States

2:45 p.m. – 4:45 p.m.

- June Gordon, UC Santa Cruz
“Transnational Migration: Identity and Schooling of Nikkei Youth.”
- Kaori Okano, La Trobe University
“Educating migrant children: multicultural policies and practices”
- Marcelo Suarez-Orosco, New York University
“LISA study of the Harvard Immigration Project”

Discussant
Christena Turner, UC San Diego and Eiko Ushida, UC San Diego

Saturday, May 7, 2011
Session 1 – The Discourse of Immigration Policy, Citizenship, Multiculturalism, and Nationalism at the National and Local Level

9:00 a.m. – 11:00 a.m.

- Masato Ninomiya, University of São Paulo
“Judicial Cooperation between Brazil and Japan concerning the presence of Brazilian workers in Japan”
- Hideki Tarumoto, Hokkaido University
“Transformation of citizenship institutions in the global migration era”
- Joseph Hankins, UC San Diego
“Multiculturalism in Japan”

Discussant
Megumi Naoi, UC San Diego

Session 2 – The Development of Community Building and Social Movements in Japan

11:15 a.m. – 12:15 p.m.

- Kazuhisa Nishihara, Nagoya University
“Immigrants from Asia to Contemporary Japan: Focus on the case of Chinese agricultural trainees”
- Hwaji Shin, University of San Francisco
“Zainichi Koreans’ social movements and citizenship in Japan”

Discussant
Lindsey Sasaki, New York University

Session 3 – The Integration of Immigrant Workers in Japan

12:30 p.m. – 1:30 p.m.

- Keiko Yamanaka, UC Berkeley
“The 2008-09 Economic Crisis, Massive Unemployment of Immigrant Workers, and Efforts to Assist Them in Central Japan”
- Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Nagoya University
“South Americans in Japanese Industrial Cities: Social Environment and the Model of Integration”

Discussant
Ulrike Schaede, UC San Diego

John Skrentny and Gary Lee to present at “The Nation and Citizen in Transformation” conference at The Chinese University of Hong Kong, May 6-7.

John Skrentny and Gary Lee will present their paper, “Nationhood and Multiculturalism in Industrialized East Asia,” at a conference on “The Nation and Citizen in Transformation: Making and Unmaking of Transnationalism in East Asia.”  The conference will take place on May 6-7 at The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

For details, click here.

Amada Armenta — Policing Immigrants or Immigration? The Implementation of 287(g) in Nashville

 

Seminar to be held in ERC 115 at 2:00 pm.
Amada Armenta will discuss her research on the implementation of the 287(g) program in Nashville, Tennessee. In April 2007, the Davidson County Sheriff’s Office began implementing the 287(g) program, which allows trained Sheriff’s deputies to screen all foreign born arrestees for immigration status and process them for removal. This particular paper focuses on how (or if) the adoption of the 287(g) program in Davidson County, affects the daily practices of city police officers whose arrests subject immigrants to screening in the jail, but who do not have immigration enforcement authority. Based on ride-alongs and interviews with Nashville police officers, Armenta’s research examines how field-level officers decide whether to arrest immigrants on misdemeanor violations to state law. Her findings show how officer behavior motivated by formal and de facto police department policies, create the perception that police are targeting immigrants for enforcement.

Amada Armenta is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at UCLA and a Predoctoral Research Fellow at the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies at UC San Diego. Her research has been supported by various organizations including the National Science Foundation, the American Society of Criminology, the American Sociological Association, the Social Science Research Council, and the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. She has presented professional papers at numerous national conferences, and has been published in International Migration Review, Qualitative Sociology, and Work and Occupations. Her current research focuses on the politics and implementation of the 287(g) program in Nashville, Tennessee.

Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX)

MIPEX is an interactive tool and reference guide to assess, compare and improve integration policies produced by the British Council and the Migration Policy Group.

These measurements reveal how policies compare against the standard of equal rights and responsibilities and opportunities for migrants.

For more information, visit the MIPEX website.

CCIS at the Midwest Political Science Association meeting

CCIS Director John Skrentny will be presenting “Obama and Immigration Reform: A Tough Sell for a Grand Bargain” at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association in Chicago, March 31-April 3, 2011. CCIS Research Claire Adida will be presenting “Gender and Generosity: Problems in Islamic Integration into France” at the same meeting.

Information about the conference »