CCIS Guest Scholar Francisco José Cuberos Gallardo publishes “Latin American Immigration to Spain”
Seminar to be held on Tuesday, May 8th in ERC 115 at 12:30 pm.
What is the relationship between security and immigration to the U.S? How have security objectives factored into U.S. immigration policy? These questions are significant for the U.S. because the volume of international migration has been increasing in recent decades and many analysts argue that without sound policy planning immigration can for America serve as a source of conflict with foreign states, tax the ability of its domestic systems to assimilate diverse peoples without violence, and expose its citizens and immigrants to crime, contagious disease, and terrorism. This talk will address these questions and present the strategic logic for U.S. immigration policy by identifying three general categories of security objectives that American officials have attempted to reach with immigration from the colonial era to the present-day: (1) foreign relations, (2) material and military interests, and (3) domestic security (prevent crime, espionage, and terrorism; epidemics; and ethnic violence). The discussions of the categories will draw from International Relations (IR) and Security Studies theories, primary sources, and works by demographers and historians to specify the relationships amongst the security areas and immigration, identify policy instruments used by leaders to influence immigration for security, and present historical cases of U.S. immigration policies designed for security purposes. The talk will conclude with discussing its implications for immigration research and contemporary policy.
Robbie Totten is a doctoral candidate in the UCLA Department of Political Science and the pre-doctoral fellow here at the CCIS. He received his BA in Political Science from Duke University and he has published articles in the Journal of Interdisciplinary History and Diplomatic History. Totten’s dissertation is titled, “Security and United States Immigration Policy,” and his research interests include, demography and security, foreign relations and state migration policies, nontraditional security threats, geopolitics and international migration, refugee crises, and U.S. immigration policy history.
John Skrentny, CCIS Director, will be presenting “After Civil Rights: Law and the Meaning of Race in the American Workplace” at the “Fractures: Defining and Redefining the Twentieth-Century United States,” at the Department of History, University of Pennsylvania.
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The 28th Meeting of the Politics of Race, Immigration, and Ethnicity Consortium (PRIEC)
Friday, May 4th, 12:00 – 7:30pm
Co-sponsored by: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, Department of Political Science
12:00-12:15pm LUNCH AND INTRODUCTION
12:15-2:45pm PANEL 1
Allison Anoll, Stanford University, Dissipating Cuban Distinctiveness: A Study of the Increasing Homogeneity of Latino Political Participation Among Post-1980 Immigrant and U.S. Born Cubans
Zoltan Hajnal and Michael Rivera, UCSD, Attitudes Toward Latinos and the White Vote
Chris Haynes, University of California Riverside, Calling All Empathizers: How Empathy Moderates the Effect of Empathic Capacity on Immigration Policy Preferences
Brad Jones, UC Davis, Anchor Babies and Aliens: What’s in a Name?
Neil Visalvanich, UCSD, An Experimental Manipulation: Candidate Race, Information, and Vote Choice
2:45-3:00pm COFFEE BREAK
3:00-5:15pm PANEL 2
Melissa Michelson, Cal State University – East Bay, Nativity and Mobilization: Field Experiments in Immigrant Voter Mobilization
Sergio Garcia-Rios, University of Washington, From Defined to Refined: A Theory of Identity Formation among Latinos/as
Joel Fetzer and Michael Weisshar, Pepperdine University, Generic Prejudice and Public Attitudes toward Immigration in Argentina
Kristina Victor, UC Davis, The Ties that Bind: Experimental Evidence on the Effects of Ethnic Cues
Jane Lilly, UCSD Sociology, Identity and Protest: How the 2006 Immigration Protests Shaped Identity Among Latinos Living in the United States
Soomi Lee, University of La Verne, Racial Hetereogeneity and Medicaid Expenditure in the U.S. States: A Longitudinal Analysis
These events are open to all members of the UCSD community, as well as faculty and students from other universities and the general public. For further information, please contact Ana Minvielle at firstname.lastname@example.org or 858-822-4447.
CCIS Director, John Skrentny, will present “Research Universities in the American Education System” at the “Education in a New Society Seminar” to be held at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University.
For more information, click here.
Director of CCIS, John Skrentny, will present “After Civil Rights: Race and Reform in the New American Workplace” at the Harvard-MIT Economic Sociology Seminar on April 25th.
For more information, click here.
CCIS Associate Director, David FitzGerald, discusses the shifts in immigration from Mexico to the U.S.
Seismic shifts in immigration and demographics leave towns full of young men who once would have dreamed of the US
BY EDWARD HELMORE APRIL 25, 2012
Potential migrants say the US border crossing is not itself a dissuading factor, but racial discrimination and hostility are. Photograph: Carlos Barria/Reuters
In a typical year, the young men in this agricultural region of western Mexico would have made the journey north to America. But not this year or for this generation: a better future across the border is a promise they no longer trust.
“For years, we dreamed of America, but now that dream is no good,” says 18-year-old Pedro Morales, sitting in the elegant Spanish colonial square of Comala under the shadow of the spectacular Volcan de Fuego. “There are no jobs and too many problems. We don’t want to go.”
In an historic shift, the tide of immigration from Mexico to the US has stalled. Villages that were empty of young men are now full. A report published by the Pew Hispanic Center this week confirmed what was already anecdotally clear: the largest wave of immigration in US history has stalled and is now close to slipping into reverse.
Between 2005 and 2010, 1.4 million Mexicans immigrated to the United States, less than half the number that migrated between 1995 and 2000. At the same time, the number of Mexicans who moved to Mexico over the same period rose to 1.4 million, double the number over the previous five years.
Other research groups in the field say the narrowing gap in wages and relative costs of living between Mexico and the US, as well as improving education standards in Mexico, has tipped the calculation back.
“The great migration of the past five decades has been slowing for a decade,” says Doug Massey, founder of the Mexican Migration Project at Princeton University. “We’ve been at a point of stasis since 2009.”
On the US side, election year tough-on-immigration rhetoric has obscured the subtleties of the US-Mexico relationship.
But in Mexico, increased border controls on the US side, as well as controversial anti-immigrant legislation passed in states like Alabama and Arizona, are only overt signals that the US may have entered a period of sustained hostility toward its southern, economically vital neighbour.
Potential migrants say the border is not itself a dissuading factor, but racial discrimination and hostility, efforts to deny employment, education and healthcare are, as is increased exposure to arrest and deportation.
“The reason they’re coming home is because they have no options, no papers, and the laws are more aggressive,” says Fernando Morett, a shopkeeper in the coastal town of Chiutlan. “It’s complicated, and people are debating it. If they don’t have friends in the US and they have to pay to cross the line, it’s not worth it.”
For Mexicans already in the US, the decision to return is still fraught with uncertainty. “But at least here they have the option of food and shelter, and they suffer less than in the US,” says Morett.
The turnaround is striking. While studies that show migrant workers are net economic contributors and form the bedrock of construction, farming and catering during boom years, there is evidence the crackdown is creating a new underclass.
“It’s a huge drag on social and economic mobility in the country if
you’ve got no rights whatsoever,” says Massey. Economic improve-
ment in Mexico and across Latin America, coupled with declining
fertility rates (from an average of seven children in 1960 to just over
two now) suggests the region may soon no longer have a surplus workforce.
Further, the hardened US attitudes toward foreigners is keenly felt. Cesar Castellano, a taxi driver waiting for a fare in Comala, describes how his brother worked eight years at the same California restaurant.
“One morning the police came and searched everyone. He had no papers so they took him to the border at Tijuana. They wouldn’t let him see his family or collect his things. The restaurant gave him nothing. Now he’s working in construction here.”
The choice to stay home appears to have little to with the ongoing militarisation of the long US-Mexico border that started in the mid-1980s. The border now costs $3.5bn annually in fence construction and technology that includes drones and motion sensors. Critics say it’s an effective local employment boon – the number of border agents has tripled in recent years – but little more: the measures do not in themselves dissuade migrants.
Expansive new detention cells at typical border crossing are reported virtually empty. “We will always get over we want to,” says one of the young men in Colama. “If there were better opportunities in the US, we would go.”
David Fitzgerald, an immigration expert at the University of California San Diego, believes that 95% of those who attempt the crossing succeed. He believes border controls have inadvertently contributed to the ferocity of the cartel wars on the Mexican side – an insurgency that has killed 50,000 over the past four years.
The mom-and-pop “coyote” operations that once ran migrants across the border have been pushed out replaced by sophisticated operations that pay dues to the cartels for crossing their territory. Costs of a cross-border transport have risen $2,500, a ten-fold increase in a decade.
“More agents has led to more coyotes, and it’s a more lucrative and complex business,” says Fitzgerald. “The gangs are not directly involved in people-smuggling, but they’re paid for the rights to cross their territory. Along the Gulf Coast, the Zetas have been preying on Central American migrants.”
But in Mexico’s rural towns, young men watch reports on TV of the violence in Ciudad Juarez and Monterrey and share anecdotes of migrants going missing with only their luggage ever turning up or of being Tasered by border control on the US side.
At Jalisco, traditionally one of the main sending states, the effects of border issues are keenly felt. Families are split when parents who lack papers are separated from their US-born children. Instead of being repatriated, apprehended migrants are subjected to periods of detention; penalties for overstaying on migrant worker visas have increased with longer periods of disbarment. Temporary work visas, while more plentiful, are also expensive to apply for.
With remaining migrants struggling for employment in the US, they’re less likely to be able to raise the steep fees to bring friends and family over. In Jalisco, that lack of opportunity has also given gangs opportunity for Mafia-style loan sharking and protection rackets tied to the state’s rival gangs, Los Nueva Generacion and pseudo-religious Knights Templar, which recently proclaimed it would stop the violence for the duration of the pope’s visit.
“The guys want money but they can’t go to America to make it. So then they lend it or demand money for protection, and that causes more problems,” says Castellano. “Perhaps it would be better everyone if they just opened the border.”
But in the current political and economic environment, he admits, that’s unlikely.
Northwestern University’s Center for Forced Migration Studies
2nd Annual Summer Institute – “Settling Resettlement”
July 8th-14th, 2012
The CFMS Summer Institute is a six-day, non-degree earning seminar intended for researchers, policy makers, academics and practitioners working in issues of forced migration, resettlement and humanitarian assistance both within the United States and abroad.