Gordon Hanson – Birth Rates and Border Crossings: The Demographic Push Behind Emigration in the Americas

Gordon Hanson – Birth Rates and Border Crossings: The Demographic Push Behind Emigration in the Americas
 

Please listen (above) to the Research Seminar given by Gordon Hanson on February 23, 2010. We also encourage you to subscribe to our CCIS Podcast and listen to all of our research seminars for free!


We intersect data on births from the WDI with U.S Census information on country of origin to estimate cohort-specific migration rates to the U.S. for twenty-one countries in the Americas. Using these data, we confirm the theoretical prediction that labor supply should play a driving role in migration, with individuals born into unusually large cohorts having a higher propensity to migrate. We find this effect to be strongest in nearby countries, with a slope that is decreasing and convex in both distance and in the number of countries crossed to reach the U.S. Labor supply-driven migration also interacts in interesting ways with shocks in the sending countries: natural disasters, sudden stops, and high-variability in income per capita all lead to more out-migration when they occur in large cohorts. Our results suggest a strong role for demographic pressure in generating migration in the Americas. (paper co-authored with Craig McIntosh, UCSD Economics)

Gordon Hanson, Professor, Department of Economics and School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego

Hanson is the director of the Center on Pacific Economies and is a professor of economics at UC San Diego, where he holds faculty positions in the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies and the Department of Economics. Hanson is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and co-editor of theJournal of Development Economics. He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a senior research fellow at the Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development. Prior to joining UCSD in 2001, he was on the economics faculty at the University of Michigan (1998-2001) and at the University of Texas (1992-1998).

Professor Hanson has published extensively in the top academic journals of the economics discipline. His current research examines the international migration of skilled labor, the economics of illegal immigration, the relationship between business cycles and global outsourcing, and international trade in motion pictures. In recent work, he has studied the impact of trade and immigration on wages, the origins of political opposition to immigration, and the implications of China’s growth for the export performance of Mexico and other developing countries. His most recent book is Skilled Immigration Today: Problems, Prospects, and Policies (Oxford University Press, forthcoming), co-edited with Jagdish Bhagwati.

Marisa Abrajano – Latinos and the 2008 Elections in California

Marisa Abrajano – Latinos and the 2008 Elections in California
 

Listen above to the Research Seminar given by Marisa Abrajano on January 12, 2010. We also encourage you to subscribe to our CCIS Podcast and listen to all of our research seminars for free!


Similar to the outcomes in both the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections, California was expected to be a solidly blue state in the 2008 presidential race. What makes this presidential election distinct from previous ones, however, is the significant role that California played in the democratic nomination process. For the first time in the modern day presidential nomination process, the state’s fastest growing share of the electorate, Latinos, were given the opportunity to express their political preferences in a meaningful and important way. This paper examines the factors influencing Latino vote choice in the 2008 Democratic and Republican presidential primaries. Can Latino vote choice be explained in the same manner as non-Latinos? Do potential distinctions in the information they receive (e.g. political ads, the media) affect their vote decisions in any way? In the months that followed California’s primary election, Latino voters remained in the spotlight, though not with respect to the presidential race. Instead, the importance of capturing the Latino vote turned to Proposition 8, a ballot initiative that would amend the California constitution to ban same sex-marriage in the state.

Paper co-authored with Fernando Guerra, Professor of Political Science at Loyola Marymount University

Marisa Abrajano, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of California, San Diego; CCIS Visiting Fellow

Marisa Abrajano is an assistant professor in the department of political science at the University of California, San Diego. She received her Ph.D. in politics from New York University in 2005. Her research interests are in American politics, particularly in the areas of campaigns, mass electoral behavior, Latino politics, and racial/ethnic politics. She is the author of two forthcoming books: Campaigning to the New American Electorate: Television Advertising to Latinos (Stanford University Press) and New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic Electorate in America (with R. Michael Alvarez) published by Princeton University Press. Her other work has been published in The Journal of PoliticsPolitical Research QuarterlyAmerican Politics Research and Political Behavior.

Leisy Abrego – Barely Subsisting to Thriving: The Significance of Legal Status and Gender for Salvadoran Transnational Families

Leisy Abrego – Barely Subsisting to Thriving: The Significance of Legal Status and Gender for Salvadoran Transnational Families
 

Listen above to the Research Seminar given by Leisy Abrego on December 1, 2009.  We also encourage you to subscribe to our CCIS Podcast and listen to all of our research seminars for free!


Limited economic opportunities drive parents in many developing countries to migrate in search of employment. Because unauthorized international travel is dangerous and costly, migrants often leave their children behind, creating transnational families. Once in the United States, with few opportunities for legalization, these families face lengthy separations. How do the parents and children fare? And what determines their outcomes? This study finds that despite tremendous emotional costs, some families are thriving economically while others are only barely subsisting. The evidence demonstrates that migrants’ legal status and gender together shape how much these families benefit from the sacrifice of separation. Specifically, experiences associated with legal status and gendered cultural norms powerfully regulate how much parents earn and, in turn, how much they remit to their children. Surprisingly, the same factors determine how much children suffer emotionally during their parents’ absence.


leisy-abrego-croppedLeisy Abrego is a University of California President’s Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Irvine. Her research interests include Latino Studies, sociology of law, international migration, gender, and families. She has published articles in Latino Studies and Law & Social Inquiry about the role of legal status in the lives and educational trajectories of undocumented immigrant youth. Most recently, she published in the Journal of Marriage and Family about gendered differences in remittance practices. She is currently working on a book manuscript about effects of legal status and gender on Salvadoran transnational families’ well-being.

Alex Balch – Managing labour migration in Europe: Ideas, knowledge and policy change

Listen below to the Research Seminar given by Alex Balch on November 3, 2009.  We also encourage you to subscribe to our podcast to automatically receive audio of all CCIS research seminars.

Alex Balch – Managing Labour Migration in Europe:  Ideas, Knowledge, and Policy Change

 
Labour migration policies in European countries have exhibited intensive change in the early part of the 21st century while the subject continues to be a hot political topic with global resonance. Dr Balch focuses on this new era of labour migration management in Europe and presents research into the key ideas which have changed the way that policymakers look at the issue. The paper presents empirical evidence from two case studies – the UK and Spain (two of the major labour importers within the EU), and charts why, when and how paradigm shifts occur.

Understanding the so-called ‘war of ideas’ in the political arena and accounting for policy change are among the key challenges for political science. The approach taken here is to take a step back and place labour migration policy in a theoretical conception of the policymaking process and policy change. In this way, rather than denouncing policymakers as irrational, incompetent (or even racist) the research attempts to show what kinds of ideas and knowledge actually shape and frame policy in the new era of migration management in Europe.


headshot-alex-balch-bwAlex Balch is a guest scholar, CCIS and an Economic and Social Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield (UK). His work is on analyzing the impacts of ideas and knowledge on labour migration policies. It addresses the observation that we often know very little about the flow of ideas and knowledge in the policy process, and what actually drives politicians and policymakers to make decisions about immigration. He is also currently developing projects examining organizational implementation and delivery chains in border control policies, and media framing of policy debates. Part of the fellowship includes funding for an overseas institutional visit at CCIS which will allow Dr. Balch to develop his research by adding extra depth in terms of a comparative perspective on the European context through reference to the U.S.

Richard Alba – Blurring the Color Line: The New Chance for a More Integrated America

Richard Alba, Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the CUNY Graduate Center, presented his new book Blurring the Color Line: The New Chance for a More Integrated America at this CCIS research seminar October 20th. The audio of his talk is available below or subscribe to our podcast to automatically receive audio of CCIS research seminars.

 
blurring-the-color-line

The next quarter century will offer an unusual chance to undermine ethno-racial divisions and to narrow the social cleavages that separate Americans into distinct and unequal ethno-racial groups. This little-comprehended opportunity will arise from a massive and predictable demographic process: the exodus from the labor market of the baby boom. The turnover in the labor market will produce what might be called “non-zero-sum” mobility: a situation where minorities can advance socioeconomically without threatening very much the opportunities that whites take for granted for themselves and their children.

Non-zero-sum mobility is a critical element in new theory of ethno-racial change. We can identify the empirical foundations for the theory by looking back to another period of profound social change: the mass assimilation of the so-called white ethnics, Irish Catholics and southern and eastern European Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Jews, in the decades following World War II. These changes also took place during a period of massive non-zero-sum-mobility, originating then in an extraordinary period of prosperity.

However, for minorities to be able to benefit from the opportunity ahead, the nation will have to address the barriers that stand in their way. It is worthwhile nevertheless to attempt to envision how ethno-racial distinctions might appear if U.S. society becomes much more diverse in its middle and upper strata.


richard-alba-full-headshotThe seeds of Richard Alba’s interest in ethnicity were sown during his childhood in the Bronx of the 1940s and 1950s and nurtured intellectually at Columbia University, where he received his undergraduate and graduate education, completing his Ph.D. in 1974. He is currently Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.

Besides ethnicity, his teaching and research focus on international migration in the U.S. and in Europe, and he has done research in France and in Germany, with the support of Fulbright grants and fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, the German Marshall Fund, and Russell Sage Foundation. His books include Ethnic Identity: The Transformation of White America (1990); Italian Americans: Into the Twilight of Ethnicity (1985); Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration (2003), written with Victor Nee; and, most recently, Blurring the Color Line: The New Chance for a More Integrated America (September, 2009).

He has been elected President of the Eastern Sociological Society (1997-98) and Vice President of the American Sociological Association (2000-01).

Cornelius Speaks at University of Chicago

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CCIS Director Emeritus Wayne Cornelius delivered the Fourth Annual Pastora San Juan Cafferty Lecture on Race and Ethnicity in American Life, at the University of Chicago on October 1. His lecture was titled “Toward a Smarter and More Just U.S. Immigration Policy: What Mexican Migrants Can Tell Us.”

Listen to the full audio of Cornelius’ speech below or download the full text.