Cambios en la Inmigración a Resultas de la Política Restrictiva del Gobierno Espanol (Working Paper #109)

Antonio Izquierdo, Center for Comparative Immigration Studies and University of Coruna – Spain

Summary: Por Antonio Izquierdo Escribano / Universidad de Coruña – España Este escrito se propone mostrar el panorama cifrado de la inmigración extranjera en España y hacer un balance de su situación legal y laboral con fecha 1 de enero del año 2004.

Se abre con una panorámica de la corriente de entrada global. El flujo de llegada sin distinción de categorías. Y desde ahí se desciende a los diversos tipos que lo componen. Desde los solicitantes de asilo, que es el menos numeroso, hasta el de investigadores y universitarios como mas cualificado. Además, la corriente de universitarios y sus familias no hace mas que aumentar en los últimos años y ha llegado a sextuplicar al anterior durante el 2.003.

El ensayo continúa con el análisis del stock. En su conjunto y en sus componentes mas señalados. Se examina el recuento estadístico mas amplio de la población extranjera que es el que nos brinda el Padrón Continuo de Habitantes. Se trata de un Registro Municipal de carácter oficial que, al menos en la teoría, debe contener a los mas, lo que incluye a la mayor parte de los inmigrantes extranjeros en situación irregular. Y luego se desagregan los trabajadores y los menores extranjeros escolarizados.

En fin, para abarcar tal pluralidad de flujos y de subpoblaciones se visitan aquí y allá diversas fuentes estadísticas, todas ellas oficiales. ¿Pero y el balance? ¿Cuál es el criterio que lo guía? La vara de medir va a ser la política de inmigración.

La política de inmigración cuando mira hacia dentro del país receptor suele transitar por tres vías: la regulación de los flujos, las necesidades de mano de obra en los mercados de trabajo y, en relación no exclusiva con el ámbito laboral, la integración del stock de residentes que se instalan de modo permanente. En todo ello nos detendremos.

Así pues empezaré con un análisis de los diferentes flujos de entrada, continuaré con el examen del stock de población extranjera (en su vertiente legal e irregular) y cerraré el recorrido con la evaluación de cuatro indicadores de integración: desempleo, escolarización, comportamiento demográfico y naturalización.

Se trata de responder a tres cuestiones que constituyen los objetivos principales del Programa Greco: disminución, legalidad y temporalidad de la inmigración.

1.- Se redujeron los flujos de inmigración controlando además su origen y composición?

2.- Se cubrieron las necesidades laborales sustituyendo el círculo vicioso de la irregularidad por el virtuoso de la legalidad? Es decir, la mayoría de la mano de obra entró documentada?

3.- La política restrictiva de inmigración ha disminuido la permanencia o, mas bien, el resultado ha sido el contrario?

Working Paper #109»

Immigrants and Their Schooling (Working Paper #108)

James P. Smith, RAND

Introduction: Immigrants often do not come with much, but they do bring their human capital. Since schooling is the most basic index of their skill, how much education migrants had before they arrived, how much they were able to add while in the United States, and how that schooling helped their performances in the American labor market are critical questions in determining their eventual economic success or failure. In part because of this, education may also be crucial in influencing who decides to migrate to the United States.

This influence may be even more direct if migrants come to attend American schools, especially if some of them then stay on as permanent residents. Finally, immigrants are not only members of today’s workforce—they are also parents and grandparents of a major part of the American labor market in the future. Thus, the issue of the size of inter-generational transmission of schooling across immigrant generations is a basic determinant in shaping what the country will look like in the decades ahead.

Immigrants are thought to have significantly less schooling than do native-born Americans; a disparity that it is claimed has been growing over time. Some also see a crisis in American colleges with foreign students first displacing American students and subsequently displacing American workers when they stay on as permanent residents. There is also a common belief that the successful economic assimilation across generations that is part of our folklore for European immigrants in particular may be broken for some of our contemporaneously large migrant ethnic groups. In this paper, I will provide evidence that at a minimum these claims are exaggerated.

This paper is divided into five sections. Section 1 documents the most salient comparative patterns in the schooling of the foreign-born population in the United States, while the second section examines how nativity differences in education have changed over time. Section 3 highlights the considerable education diversity that exists in schooling accomplishments within the immigrant population. This diversity spans time of arrival, ethnic background, legal status, and the reasons for admission to the United States. Section 4 addresses the issue of the impact of foreign students on American schools. The final section focuses on the inter-generational transmission of schooling.

Working Paper #108»

Media Images, Immigrant Reality: Ethnic Prejudice and Tradition in Japanese Media Representations of Japanese-Brazilian Return Migrants (Working Paper #107)

Takeyuki “Gaku” Tsuda, University of California – San Diego

Abstract: Based on a close content analysis of 16 Japanese television programs and shows (recorded on videotape) that featured the Japanese-Brazilians and aired in the early 1990s,5 I argue that Japanese media coverage of nikkeijin migrants can become a catalyst for change to a limited extent by challenging some engrained Japanese ethnic perceptions and providing self-reflexive criticism of Japanese society while at the same time rather unreflexively and implicitly reinforcing these traditional attitudes and prejudices. For instance, although the programs and shows I examined made a serious effort to discredit some ethnic prejudices about nikkeijin migrants, it also included material that perpetuated them. Likewise, while Japanese-Brazilian immigrants are shown disrupting the traditional Japanese cultural values of filial piety and family obligation for instrumental, economic purposes, they are also portrayed as eventually reaffirming such traditional beliefs in their behavior and decisions.

Working Paper #107»

Learning in Two Languages: Spanish-English Immersion in U.S. Public Schools (Working Paper #106)

April Linton, University of California – San Diego

Abstract: Under what circumstances will parents and educators value bilingualism enough to see to it that children attain or maintain it? This paper explores the extent to which contextual conditions can help answer this question. I define and test several models of the influence of demographic, economic, and social context on the likelihood that a school district will adopt the dual-language option. The focus is exclusively on Spanish- English programs (over 90 percent of the total). Spanish-speakers are the largest non-English-language group in the United States. More than half the people who generally speak a language other than English at home speak Spanish (Schmidt 2000:70).

Working Paper #106»

Immigration and Politics (Working Paper #105)

Wayne Cornelius, University of California – San Diego

Marc R. Rosenblum, University of New Orleans

Abstract: With nearly one in ten residents of advanced industrialized states now an immigrant, international migration has become a fundamental driver of social, economic, and political change. We review alternative models of migratory behavior (which emphasize structural factors largely beyond states’ control) as well as models of immigration policy making that seek to explain the gaps between stated policy and actual outcomes. Some scholars attempt to explain the limited efficacy of control policies by focusing on domestic interest groups, political institutions, and the interaction among them; others approach the issue from an international or “intermestic” perspective. Despite the modest effects of control measures on unauthorized flows of economic migrants and asylum seekers, governments continue to determine the proportion of migrants who enjoy legal status, the specific membership rights associated with different legal (and undocumented) migrant classes, and how policies are implemented. These choices have important implications for how the costs and benefits of migration are distributed among different groups of migrants, native-born workers, employers, consumers, and taxpayers.

Working Paper #105»

What Holds Back the Second Generation? The Intergenerational Transmission of Language Human Capital Among Immigrants (Working Paper #104)

Hoyt Bleakley, University of California – San Diego

Aimee Chin, University of Houston

Abstract: Research on the effect of parental human capital on children’s human capital is complicated by the endogeneity of parental human capital. This study exploits the phenomenon that younger children learn languages more easily than older children to construct an instrumental variable for language human capital. Thus, among U.S.-born children with childhood immigrant parents, those whose parents arrived to the U.S. as younger children tend to have more exposure to English at home. We find a significant positive effect of parent’s English-speaking proficiency on children’s English-speaking proficiency while the children are young, but eventually all children attain the highest level of English-speaking proficiency as measured by the Census. We find evidence that children with parents with lower English-speaking proficiency are more likely to drop out of high school, be below their age-appropriate grade, and not attend preschool. Strikingly, parental English-language skills can account for 60% of the difference in dropout rate between non-Hispanic whites and U.S.-born Hispanic children of immigrants. (JEL J13, J24, J62)

Working Paper #104»

Organizing Immigrant Communities in American Cities: Is this Transnationalism, or What? (Working Paper #103)

Gustavo Cano, University of California – San Diego

Introduction: The term “transnationalism” is now commonly used by a growing cluster of social scientists. However, some scholars assert that the term is hopeless: it generally ends up explaining nothing new, it seems to have no future, or even worst, its regular users seem not to agree on the definition of the term, and the debates that it generates generally takes social scientists nowhere.

This paper deals with this situation from two perspectives. Firstly, I point out the theoretical problems that “transnationalism” presents as an interdisciplinary concept. I identify different subjects and transnational fields of study in several disciplines (Political Science, Sociology, Economics, Law, Migration Studies, and Anthropology), and research fields (Communication, Gender, Religion), and expose how each discipline/research field has dealt with different issues while attempting to build a solid theoretical background of the broad term during the last twenty one years.

In theoretical terms, I argue that the use of the term “transnationalism” has been transformed to a point in which is practically impossible to sustain the broader sense of the term beyond its generic roots. Terms like political transnationalism, anthropological transnationalism, sociological transnationalism, etc., form a more feasible working frame if the term is to prevail in the neighborhood.

From an empirical perspective, I develop an analysis of political transnationalism based on the Mexican immigrant experience in Houston and Chicago. I expose an organizational approach of transnational politics, and lay emphasis on the role of the Mexican and American states in the process. I argue that the essence of transnational politics is highly related to the agenda setting process of the organizations that deal with immigrant issues, and then I address the role of globalization politics and policies in the process of elite formation among immigrants. Finally, I point out the importance of the influence of local politics and policies in the formation and consolidation of transnational politics from an organizational standpoint.

Working Paper #103»

Remittance Outcomes in Rural Oaxaca, Mexico: Challenges, Options, and Opportunities for Migrant Households (Working Paper #102)

Jeffrey H. Cohen, Pennsylvania State University

Leila Rodriguez, Pennsylvania State University

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the ways in which migrant households in rural Oaxaca, Mexico use remittances. We use data from a survey and ethnographic research in 12 rural communities in the central valleys of the state to examine three investment strategies: those made in the local (village) commercial economy, those made in the agricultural/dairy sector, and those made in Oaxaca’s tourism industry. In our discussion, we examine the challenges that surround such local efforts and ask whether such patterns increase dependency, or create opportunities. Finally, we ask, can the investment of remittances mitigate future migration?

Working Paper #102»

From National Inclusion to European Exclusion: State, Nation and Europe in Ethnic Hungarian Migration to Hungary (Working Paper #101)

Jon E. Fox, University of California – San Diego

Introduction: Large numbers of ethnic Hungarians from Romania have been working illegally on and off in Hungary since the regime changes in 1989-1990. In 2001, Hungary passed legislation, the so-called “Status Law,” that granted the transborder Hungarians the right to work in Hungary three months out of each calendar year. But in preparation for joining the European Union in May 2004, the law has been gradually dismantled in accordance with the EU’s strictures against ethnic-based entitlements. Over the last decade and a half, ethnic Hungarian migrants have received mixed signals from Hungary. On the one hand, initiatives such as the Status Law have sought to symbolically incorporate transborder Hungarians into the fold of a greater Hungarian cultural nation. On the other hand, the erection of a new European boundary between Hungary and its neighbors (preceded by tight immigration controls in place since the early 1990s) has made it increasingly difficult for the transborder Hungarians to enjoy the legal benefits of Hungarian citizenship. While macro-political developments in this domain have received increased scholarly attention in recent years (see, e.g., Fowler 2002; Kántor 2002; Lukács and Király 2001; Stewart 2003; Wallace and Stola 2001), the way in which these changes affect the lives of ordinary migrants has not been systematically studied. The aim of the present paper is to explain how these shifting and ambiguous political contexts impact the trajectories, experiences, and self-understandings of undocumented ethnic Hungarian migrants from Romania working in Hungary.

Working Paper #101»

Gender(ed) Migrations: Shifting Gender Subjectivities in a Transnational Mexican Community (Working Paper #100)

Deborah A. Boehm, Center for Comparative Immigration Studies and Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies

Abstract: In this paper, I discuss findings about gender subjectivities and gender relations among transnational Mexicans in San Luis Potosí, Mexico and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Drawing on ethnographic data, I outline the transforming roles of women and men within a community of Mexican “transmigrants” (Glick Schiller, Basch, Blanc-Szanton 1995: 48). I will argue that masculinity is both reconstituted and compromised by immigration to the United States, which in turn, simultaneously liberates and puts new controls on women, redefining femininity and what it means to be a woman. In a Mexican rancho, men are expected to migrate, and the masculinity of those who do not go north is called into question. Paradoxically, men may have their masculinity stripped from them once they are in the United States, as they leave behind their role as farmers to work in low-wage jobs. Meanwhile, women who stay in Mexico face new burdens alongside increased freedoms: still responsible for domestic chores and child care, women take on tasks that were previously understood as the sphere of men, such as farming and managing finances. The lives of women living in the United States also transform—they are often in wage labor for the first time, and their roles in the family are notably altered. Rosa’s assertion—“¡Ya soy hombre y mujer!/Now I am a man and a woman!”—underscores how (im)migration is bringing about striking changes in gender identities.

Working Paper #100»