Undocumented No More: A Nationwide Analysis of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals

Seminar to be held on Wednesday, October 2nd at 12:00 pm

On June 15, 2012, the White House introduced the program of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). DACA represents a major shift in the Obama administration’s immigration enforcement priorities, as it provides an estimated 1.76 million undocumented youth with relief from deportation and two-year renewable work permits. In the first of its kind, this study analyzes over 450,000 individual DACA applications submitted to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

We obtained individual-level records via a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. Using these data, we provide a comprehensive account of DACA applicants with an eye towards whether any particular racial/ethnic or national origins group is systematically under-represented in the pool of DACA applications. We then present a preliminary analysis of the determinants of DACA applications. What explains the patterns of DACA applications that we observe by race/ethnicity, national origins group, and region?

wongTom K. Wong 
Assistant Professor of Political Science
University of California, San Diego

 

 

Angela García
Ph.D. Candidate
University of California, San Diego

Elizabeth Aguilera
Senior Reporter for Immigration
U-T San Diego

Carolina Valdivia
Staff Research Associate
University of California, San Diego

Vanesa Ribas – The Meanings of “Moyo”: Shop Floor Racial Talk as Symbolic Boundary-Making among Latina/o Migrant and African American Workers in the American South

 

Seminar to be held on Monday, June 3rd in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm.

This presentation draws on ethnographic research primarily conducted while I was employed as a regular production worker in a North Carolina meatpacking plant for sixteen months between 2009 and 2010. As part of a larger project that attempts to explain the character of social relations between Latina/o migrants and their chief counterparts in the workplace – African Americans – I trace the categories and meanings of shop floor racial talk with parallel attention to the diverse ethnoracial panoramas in Latina/o migrants’ origin countries. How are the terms moyo, negro, and moreno used at work? What does this suggest about how Latinos view African Americans as a group? And how does this language relate to pre-migration ideas about blacks and blackness? I find that the use of ethnoracial forms of identification is much more prevalent among Latina/os towards African Americans than the converse, and I examine the features of one particularly salient designation of African Americans as moyos, a term whose valence is indefinite and situational, but frequently acquires pejorative significance. I trace the transnational origins of this identification, finding that its adaptation and propagation occurs within the transnational spaces that Latina/o migrants occupy. Ultimately, I argue that Latinos’ deployment of bold symbolic boundaries expresses racialized resentment, reflecting and reinforcing their perception that they are the most oppressively exploited workers and that African Americans occupy a privileged position in the workplace.

ribas_ucsdVanesa Ribas received her Ph.D. at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2012. Her research has appeared in the American Sociological Review (with Neal Caren and Raj Ghoshal), Social Science and Medicine (with Janette Dill and Philip Cohen), Teaching Sociology (with Raj Ghoshal et al.), and is forthcoming in Sociological Perspectives. She is working on a book based on her study of Latina/o migration to the American South, labor exploitation, and race relations in a large meatpacking plant.

James F. Hollifield – Immigration and the ‘Republican’ Model in France

 

Seminar to be held on Wednesday, May 22nd in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm.

To what extent is the French republican model still viable in debates over immigration and integration in France today?  Viewed from the perspective of the last thirty years, which saw the rise of a powerful anti-immigrant political movement, the Front National, one might conclude that immigration in postwar France has been raging out of control.  Yet despite the remarkable showing of the Front National in recent presidential elections, France has remained a relatively open immigration country, a tradition which dates from the middle of the nineteenth century.  Annual levels of immigration have not fallen much below 100,000 since the early 1950s, the right to asylum has been respected by every postwar government, and France has maintained what is arguably the most liberal naturalization policy in Western Europe.  How can we explain this continuity in the midst of crisis?  I argue that the continuity in the principles and outcomes of French immigration policy is closely linked to the power of the republican model and to the limits of control that are a function of rights-based politics.

21917D_068_HollifieldJames F. Hollifield is Ora Nixon Arnold Professor of International Political Economy in the Department of Political Science and Director of the Tower Center for Political Studies at Southern Methodist University (SMU). He received his PhD in political science from Duke University in 1985. A member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he has worked as a consultant for a variety of governmental and intergovernmental organizations, and has published widely on international political and economic issues, including Immigrants, Markets, and States (Harvard UP, 1992), L’immigration et l’Etat Nation (L’Harmattan, 1997), Controlling Immigration (Stanford UP, 2nd Edition, 2004), Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines (Routledge, 2nd Edition, 2008), and International Political Economy: History, Theory and Policy (Cambridge UP, forthcoming) along with numerous other books and scientific articles. Hollifield has been the recipient of grants from private corporations and foundations as well as government agencies, including the German Marshall Fund of the United States, the Social Science Research Council, the Sloan Foundation, the Raytheon Company, and the National Science Foundation. His current research looks at the rapidly evolving relationship between trade, migration, and development with a special focus on human capital and how states use migration for strategic gains. He sits on several boards and is currently Chairman of the Owens Foundation and the Dallas County Historical Foundation, the governing body of the Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza.

Tom K. Wong – Will Comprehensive Immigration Reform Pass? Predicting Legislative Support and Opposition to CIR

 

Seminar to be held on Monday, April 29th in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm.

Will comprehensive immigration reform (CIR) pass in 2013? The momentum that has been building towards CIR, which accelerated with last November’s presidential election and has since grown even more with the recent introduction of the Senate ‘gang of 8′s” bill, has shown no signs of slowing down. As a matter of politics, the key question is whether there are enough votes in Congress? While there are no crystal balls to tell us how legislators will ultimately vote, the recent history of immigration politics in the U.S. provides sufficient information to make informed predictions, not only about how current members of Congress are likely to vote on the final passage of CIR, but also about how they are likely to vote on the various amendments that will be introduced. By modeling voting behavior on all recent immigration – related legislation – which provides some 6,000 observations in the Senate and over 10,000 observations in the House – I provide estimates for all 535 current members of Congress of the number of yes and no votes on the final passage of CIR, as well as estimates for a number of key amendments that, if passed, could fundamentally alter the bill.

wongTom K. Wong is assistant professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. Professor Wong’s research focuses on the politics of immigration, citizenship, and migrant illegality. As these issues have far-reaching implications, his work also explores the links between immigration, race and ethnicity, and the politics of identity. He is completing a book manuscript, which analyzes the determinants of immigration control policy across twenty-five Western immigrant-receiving democracies. He is also working on a project that creates a typology of the mobility regimes of immigrant-sending countries in order to explain patterns of contemporary international migration, as well as a project on the politics of migrant illegality. His work has been published as a book chapter with Stanford University Press and in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

Tomás Jiménez – When White is Just Alright: How Immigrants Redefine Achievement and Reconfigure the Ethnoracial Hierarchy

 

Seminar to be held on Wednesday, April 17th in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm.

Research on immigration, educational achievement, and ethnoraciality has followed the lead of racialization and assimilation theories by focusing empirical attention on the immigrant-origin population (immigrants and their children) and effectively ignoring the third-plus generation (those who are US-born of US-born parents).  We depart from this orthodox approach by placing third-plus-generation individuals at center stage to examine how they adjust to norms that the immigrant-origin population defines.  We draw on fieldwork in Cupertino, California, a high-skilled immigrant gateway, where an Asian immigrant-origin population has established and enforces an amplified version of high-achievement norms.  The resulting ethnoracial encoding of academic achievement constructs whiteness as having “lesser-than” status.  Whiteness has come to represent low-achievement, laziness, and academic mediocrity; Asianness, by comparison, stands for high-achievement, hard work, and success.  We argue that immigrants can serve as a foil against which the meaning and status of an ethnoracial category become recast, upending how the category is normally deployed in daily life.  Our findings call into question the largely taken-for-granted analytical position that treats the third-plus generation, and especially whites, as the benchmark population that sets achievement norms and to which all other populations must adjust.

Tomas JimenezTomás Jiménez is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Stanford University. His research and writing focus on immigration, assimilation, social mobility, and ethnic and racial identity. His book, Replenished Ethnicity: Mexican Americans, Immigration, and Identity (University of California Press, 2010) was recently awarded the American Sociological Association’s Sociology of Latinos/as Section 2011 Distinguished Book Award. He is currently working on three projects. The first examines how host-society individuals (US-born of US-born parents) participate in the assimilation process by drawing on in-depth interviews with host-society individuals and observations in three distinct sub-regions in the Silicon Valley: East Palo Alto, Cupertino, and Berryessa. A second project (with Stanford PhD Candidate, Lorena Castro) looks at how immigration becomes part of American national identity. A third project (with social psychologist John Dovidio (Yale), political scientist Deborah Schildkraut (Tufts), and social psychologist Yuen Ho (UCLA), examines how contextual factors shape the sense of belonging and related intergroup attitudes, behaviors, and support for immigration policies among immigrants and host-society members in the United States.  Professor Jiménez has taught at the University of California, San Diego. He has also been an Irvine Fellow at the New America Foundation. Before that, he was the American Sociological Association Congressional Fellow in the office of Rep. Michael Honda (CA-15). His writing on policy has appeared in reports for the Immigration Policy Center, and he has written opinion-editorials on the topic of immigrant assimilation in several major news outlets, including the Los Angeles Times, CNN.com, and the San Diego Union-Tribune. He holds a B.S. in sociology from Santa Clara University and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Harvard University.

Audrey Singer – Immigrant Workers, Human Capital Investment and Strengthening Regional Economies

 

Seminar to be held on Monday, March 4th in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm.

Coming out of the Great Recession, slow economic recovery has U.S. communities seeking strategies that will grow jobs in the short term and improve standards of living over the long term. This talk focuses on immigrants in the labor force and their skills, an especially relevant topic given that debates about immigration policy reform have started.  How geographic regions can invest in the human capital and economic advancement of immigrants who are already living in their jurisdictions, to help boost short- and long-term U.S. economic growth, will be discussed.

Immigrant skills-0025Audrey Singer is a senior fellow at the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program. Her areas of expertise include demography, international migration, U.S. immigration policy, and urban and metropolitan change. She has written extensively on U.S. immigration trends, including immigrant integration, undocumented migration, naturalization and citizenship, and the changing racial and ethnic composition of the United States. Her co-edited book, Twenty-First Century Gateways: Immigrant Incorporation in Suburban America, focuses on the fastest growing immigrant populations among second-tier metropolitan areas including Washington, DC, Atlanta, Dallas, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Sacramento, and Charlotte.  Other Brookings publications include, “The Geography of Immigrant Skills,” “State of Metropolitan America: on the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation,” “Immigrants, Politics, and Local Response in Suburban Washington,” “The Rise of New Immigrant Gateways,” and “From ‘Here’ to ‘There:’ Refugee Resettlement in Metropolitan America.”  Her articles have appeared in academic journals such as International Migration Review, Demography, Urban Geography, Geographical Review, and Ethnic and Racial Studies and her commentary has appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, CNN.com, Baltimore Sun, Christian Science Monitor, Seattle Times and Vanguardia Dossier.  Prior to joining Brookings, Singer was an associate in the International Migration Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Prior to Carnegie, she held a faculty position in the Department of Demography at Georgetown University, and was a demographic analyst at the U.S. Department of Labor. She was chair of the International Migration Section of the American Sociological Association in 2010.  Singer earned a Ph.D. in sociology, with a specialization in demography, from the University of Texas at Austin. She has an M.A. in sociology also from the University of Texas at Austin and a B.A. in sociology from Temple University. She conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Chicago.

 

Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar – The Political Economies of Immigration Law

 

Seminar to be held on Monday, January 28th in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm.

A largely dysfunctional American immigration system is only poorly explained by simple depictions of the political economy of lawmaking in this area, blaming functional economic policy-setting, longstanding public attitudes, explicit presidential discretion, or general gridlock. Instead, the structure of immigration law emerges from intersecting effects of three separate political economies – statutory compromises rooted in the political economy of lawmaking, organizational practices reflecting the political economy of implementation, and public reactions implicating the responses of policy elites and the larger public to each other. Together, these factors help constitute an immigration status quo of continuing legal controversies as well as powerful obstacles to change: (1) Particularly since 1986, American immigration statutes have created a legal arrangement essentially built to fail, giving authorities regulatory responsibilities that were all but impossible to achieve under existing law. (2) Implementation has been characterized by organizational fragmentation, with policy changes involving one agency producing externalities not owned by that agency, alongside limited presidential power to change enforcement or implementation. At the same time, (3) the interplay of unrealistic statutory goals, enforcement patterns, and public attitudes engenders a polarizing implementation dynamic, where agencies’ incapacity to enforce existing law tends to spur polarized responses producing legislation that exacerbates agency difficulties in meeting public expectations, without giving interested parties enough of a reason to support an alternative.

The resulting cycle favors expansion in the provision of border enforcement resources, a development supported or at least tolerated by most political actors yet failing to address the core institutional dysfunction in the system, while locking in most other features of the status quo. Beyond what these developments tell us about immigration law, they also reveal much about (a) how statutory entrenchment in the United States is affected by political cycles capable of eroding the legitimacy of public agencies, and (b) how powerful nation-states control, in limited but nonetheless significant ways, the transnational flows affecting their well-being and security.

Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar works at the intersection of law, public policy, and political science.  A member of the Stanford Law School faculty since 2001, he is currently Professor and Deane F. Johnson Faculty Scholar at Stanford Law School, Professor (by courtesy) of Political Science, and the Co-Director of Stanford’s Center for International Security and Cooperation.  His research and teaching focus on administrative law, executive power, and how organizations implement regulatory responsibilities involving public health and safety, migration, and international security in a changing world.  In July 2010, the President appointed him to the Council of the Administrative Conference of the United States, an independent agency charged with improving the efficiency and fairness of federal regulatory programs.  He also serves on the Department of Education’s National Commission on Educational Equity and Excellence, and the Department of State’s Advisory Sub-Committee on Economic Sanctions.

From early 2009 through the summer of 2010, he served as Special Assistant to the President for Justice and Regulatory Policy at the White House.  In this capacity, he led the Domestic Policy Council’s work on criminal justice and drug policy, public health and food safety, regulatory reform, borders and immigration, civil rights, and rural and agricultural policy.  Among other issues, Cuéllar worked on stricter food safety standards, the FDA’s regulatory science initiative, expanding support for local law enforcement and community-based crime prevention, strengthening border coordination and immigrant integration, and the Quadrennial Homeland Security Review.  Before working at the White House, he co-chaired the Obama-Biden Transition’s Immigration Policy Working Group.  During the second term of the Clinton Administration, he worked at the U.S. Department of the Treasury as Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary for Enforcement, where he focused on countering financial crime, improving border coordination, and enhancing anti-corruption measures.  He is on the Board of Directors of the Constitution Project, a non-profit think-tank that builds bipartisan consensus on significant constitutional issues.  He clerked for Chief Judge Mary M. Schroeder of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

Chris Haynes – Empathy & Immigration Policy Preferences: The Interactive Pathway for Permissive Change

 

Seminar to be held on Monday, November 26th in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm

Social psychology research has shown that priming both emotion-giving and perspective-taking empathy can increase positive attitudes towards other groups.  Yet, political scientists have yet to explore the attitudinal implications of this emotional construct in a political context.  However, in a previous pilot study of students,  Chris Haynes finds evidence that empathy can have a permissive effect on people’s immigration policy preferences.  Here, he builds on these insights by presenting the results of two experiments, one laboratory and one online M-Turk, which evaluate the following expectations:  First, he argues that while empathy is multidimensional, empathic effects on immigration policy preferences depend largely on the presence of both emotion-giving and perspective-taking empathy.  Second,  he asserts that these effects will be moderated by the permissive effects of dispositional empathy.    In the first laboratory study of temp agency supplied participants from California, he finds that dispositional empathy moderates permissive change as expected.   In the second national M-Turk study, he finds support for his interactive understanding of empathy in addition to dispositional empathy as a moderator.  He then discusses the implications of these findings.

Chris Haynes is a PhD candidate in Political Science from the University of California, Riverside and CCIS Pre-Doctoral Fellow.  His NSF-funded dissertation examines the effects of empathy in the context of immigration policy preferences.  More broadly, his research includes a book manuscript on the framing effects on public opinion on immigration, working papers on Asian-American co-ethnic linked fate, the implications of ethnic media consumption on the political knowledge of Latinos, Asian-Americans, and African-Americans, and work with the second iteration of the National Asian American Survey.

 

Book Discussion with Stephanie Limoncelli

 

Book discussion to be held on Monday, October 22nd in ERC 115 at 12:00 pm

The Politics of Trafficking: The First International Movement to Combat the Sexual Exploitation of Women

Sex trafficking is not a recent phenomenon. Over 100 years ago, the first international traffic in women for prostitution emerged, prompting a worldwide effort to combat it. The Politics of Trafficking provides a unique look at the history of that first anti-trafficking movement, illuminating the role gender, sexuality, and national interests play in international politics.

Initially conceived as a global humanitarian effort to protect women from sexual exploitation, the movement’s feminist-inspired vision failed to achieve its universal goal and gradually gave way to nationalist concerns over “undesirable” migrants and state control over women themselves. Addressing an issue that is still of great concern today, this book sheds light on the ability of international non-governmental organizations to challenge state power, the motivations for state involvement in humanitarian issues pertaining to women, and the importance of gender and sexuality to state officials engaged in nation building.

Stephanie A. Limoncelli is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Loyola Marymount University and a former Research Associate at the International Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Nadia Y. Flores-Yeffal – Migration-Trust Networks: Social Cohesion in Mexican U.S.-Bound Emigration

 

Seminar to be held on Tuesday, June 5th in ERC 115 at 12:30 pm

In this research, Professor Nadia Y. Flores-Yeffal uses ethnographic longitudinal data collected in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico as well as the U.S. to introduce the concept of Migration-Trust Networks (MTN) from a transnational perspective. The concept contributes to the existing social capital theories of international migration by defining the particularities that characterize the social networks of migration in which a large number of migrants from Mexico to the U.S. lack legal documentation. She specifies membership requirements to participate in a MTN for those who migrate from rural and urban places of origin. Religion, paisanaje, bounded solidarity, and enforceable trust are among the social mechanisms that influence the behavior of network participants to act collectively, trust one another, and offer mutual support in the challenges of migration. Assisting fellow migrants is expected of MTN members, while reciprocating the assistance is not. Instead, a form of risk pooling occurs in which migrants “return” favors by helping future migrants. The social structure of a MTN and the dependency on relationships of trust among its members allow for collective efficacy to form and serve as a safe haven for those who lack legal documents. Social expectations and social monitoring are maintained in the transnational context using modern technology such as cell phones and the internet. Flores-Yeffal provides a theoretical and empirical proposition of how and why the Migration-Trust Networks are able to expand by absorbing new members in a process she calls “the MTN effect.” She also argues that micro and macro social forces function simultaneously in the transnational context in order to develop, expand and/or transplant Migration-Trust Networks.

Nadia Y. Flores-Yeffal is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at Texas A&M University. She received her B.A. in Social Science from University of California Irvine, her M.A. in Demography and Ph.D. in Sociology from University of Pennsylvania. Her primary research interests include social capital, segregation, and transnational ties among Latin-American immigrants in the U.S., the role of modern technology in spreading anti-immigrant sentiment in the U.S., as well as the upward mobility of Latinos in the United States. Her research has been supported through her affiliation with the Mexican Migration Project and the Latin-American Migration Project at Princeton University, by the Mellon Foundation, “Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología” (CONACYT), and by the Mexican American and U.S. Latino Research Center at Texas A&M University. Her first book, entitled Migration-Trust Networks: social cohesion in Mexican-U.S. bound emigration, is being published by Texas A&M University Press. She is also currently writing her second book on international migration from El Salvador.