UCSD Faculty in the News – Scapegoating Africa’s Immigrants (The Washington Post)

By Claire Adida – June 3rd

Kim Yi Dionne: Claire Adida is an assistant professor of political science at the University of California San Diego. This post draws from her book, “Immigrant Exclusion and Insecurity in Africa: Coethnic Strangers,” which was recently published by Cambridge University Press.

Two months ago, after explosions killed at least six people in Nairobi’s Eastleigh suburb, Kenyan police launched Operation Usalama Watch, arrested hundreds – some say thousands – in the ethnically Somali neighborhood, and crammed them intoKasarani Stadium outside the capital city, where many continue to live today. (Twitter, with its #KasaraniConcentrationCamp hashtag, remains the best source of information on this topic.) The official word from Kenya’s State House was that the operation aimed to clean Nairobi of terrorists and illegal immigrants. The problem: Many of those arrested are Kenyan citizens.

We know very little about the fate of immigrants in Africa, a region known for sending migrants elsewhere, not for hosting them. Immigration debates and scholarly work focus overwhelmingly on south-to-north migration, the flow of people from developing to industrialized countries. And when we do turn our attention to migrant flows within the developing world, we typically think of refugees, people fleeing wars and famine. Yet close to half of all international migrants settle in the developing world, including 10 percent in Africa. These are not refugees: In 2013, an estimated14.6 million immigrants lived in Africa compared to fewer than 3 million refugees.

In many African countries, “immigrant” is more an identity predicated on ethnic heritage than a legal status.  As a result, many ethnic minorities face scapegoating and violence. This is true for Kenya’s ethnic Somalis today, who have been scapegoats for the terrorist attacks perpetrated in Kenya by Somalia’s al-Shabaab. It is pervasive throughout South Africa, where black African immigrants – derogatorily called “makwerekwere” – are blamed for the country’s economic hardships. And it has characterized Côte d’Ivoire’s recent civil war, where economic and political competition spurred the Ivoirité movement, an attempt to disenfranchise the country’s northern Muslims.

Individual case studies of immigrant scapegoating in Africa are common. My book, “Immigrant Exclusion and Insecurity in Africa: Coethnic Strangers” not only investigates the prevalence of immigrant scapegoating in sub-Saharan Africa but also explains why some immigrant groups face greater exclusion than others. I collected and analyzed data on mass immigrant expulsions in sub-Saharan African countries, from their year of independence to 1999. The analysis shows that African leaders regularly rely on mass immigrant expulsions (see map below), and that they tend to do so following economic hardship (see figure below). Idi Amin’s notorious expulsion of over 70,000 Asian Ugandans in 1972 comes to mind, but this was hardly the only or most egregious example of immigrant scapegoating.

Frequency of mass immigrant expulsions, from independence to 1999. Map by Claire Adida, shared courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

Frequency of mass immigrant expulsions, from independence to 1999. (Map by Claire Adida, courtesy of Cambridge University Press)

GDP growth around the time of a mass immigrant expulsion. Figure by Claire Adida, shared courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

GDP growth around the time of a mass immigrant expulsion. (Figure by Claire Adida, courtesy of Cambridge University Press)

In 1969, Ghana’s prime minister, Kofi Busia, facing an economic and popularity crisis, decreed his Alien Compliance Order. The executive order gave all aliens in Ghana two weeks to regularize their stay or face expulsion. An official countdown was aired every day on the radio, creating chaos and fear. Eventually, 500,000 people left. The victims of this executive order were, for the most part, ethnic Yorubas who had been living in Ghana for generations. But as members of an ethnic group indigenous to land now located in Nigeria and Benin, not Ghana, and as successful traders in Ghana’s urban centers, they became easy scapegoats.

How do these immigrants protect themselves from such scapegoating? Answering this question required a deeper exploration into the lives and integration strategies of immigrants in Africa. In 2007, I spent a year following two immigrant ethnic groups from Nigeria – the Hausas and the Yorubas – in three West African cities: Accra (Ghana), Cotonou (Benin), and Niamey (Niger) (see map below). I interviewed their leaders and surveyed their community members as well as their hosts in the urban centers in which they settle. I also sought out and interviewed victims of Ghana’s 1969 expulsion; though many have passed away, a number are now living in Ogbomosho (Nigeria). What I found is that immigrants find economic success and security by notintegrating into their host societies, a strategy reminiscent of Southeast Asia’s ethnic Chinese or Europe’s Jews.

Research sites in "Immigrant Exclusion and Insecurity in Africa: Coethnic Strangers." Map by Claire Adida, shared courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

Research sites in “Immigrant Exclusion and Insecurity in Africa: Coethnic Strangers.” (Map by Claire Adida, courtesy of Cambridge University Press)

The immigrant groups I studied settled generations ago into their urban host societies as informal traders and rely heavily on leaders in their own communities for key resources, such as access to loans, customers and supplies.

They also seek and find in these leaders greater security. When local police raid neighborhoods and round up immigrants, immigrant community leaders bail them out. This is possible because these leaders strike bargains with local police. They monitor their own, turn in the bad apples, and in return are recognized as a legitimate authority. In sum, they expend considerable time and energy organizing their members and ensuring they remain identifiable… as immigrants.

The very same strategy that gives immigrants in sub-Saharan Africa the best chances for economic success and physical safety also appears to be what keeps them vulnerable. By eschewing integration, immigrants both protect themselves against scapegoating and ensure that the threat remains.

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Immigration Law and Border Enforcement Program

Monday-Saturday, May 26-31, 2014

Co-sponsored by the Maurice A. Deane School of Law and the University of California, San Diego’s Center for Comparative Immigration Studies
Approved by the American Bar Association

The application deadline is Friday, April 4, 2014.

The fourth annual Immigration Law and Border Enforcement Program will be taught on campus at UC San Diego.

A first-of-its-kind opportunity, the program gives students of varying understanding levels the chance to see immigration law and border enforcement at work.

It includes lectures, practical training, court visits and a special border security training and tour with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Course Description

Immigration Enforcement at the Border (3 credits)
Taught by Professor Rose Cuison Villazor

This course analyzes the ways in which federal immigration officers enforce immigration laws at the border and the various legal, political, human and moral issues that they raise.

The course examines, among other areas, the relevant provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act; The Secure Fence Act of 2006; federal programs and policies, such as the Secure Border Initiative, Operation Streamline and Operation Stonegarden; Fourth Amendment search and seizure cases; and cases and controversies regarding the increasing movement of the borders inward.

Through the study of these laws and relevant cases, the course considers how enforcement of immigration law at the border has led to significant tensions between immigration officers’ authority to guard the border on sovereignty and security grounds and the rights of individuals to, among other things, privacy and equal protection under the law.

About San Diego

San Diego is on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. One of the nation’s fastest-growing cities, it is the eighth-largest city in the U.S. and second-largest in California.

San Diego is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches and long association with the U.S. Navy.

June 4 – Martin Schain – Immigration Policy: A Transatlantic Perspective

CCIS Spring Seminar Series

Martin A. Schain, Professor of Politics, New York University
Wednesday, June 4, 12:00pm 
Eleanor Roosevelt College Administration Building 
Conference Room 115, First Floor


Immigration Policy: A Transatlantic Perspective

Although the failures of American policy in dealing with undocumented  immigration and immigrants now residing in the United States have been politically front and center for most of the past decade, the comparative success of policies on legal entry and integration have generally gone unnoticed.

In Europe, with few exceptions, policy on immigration has been poorly defined and often contradictory. The gap between policy outputs and outcomes has been considerable and appears to have nurtured the breakthrough and growth of radical-right political parties. Therefore, the lessons to be learned from Europe are generally negative—what not to do and how not to do it. I will examine three aspects of immigration policy in Europe and the United States: entry policy, integration policy, and border enforcement.


Martin A. Schain is Professor of Politics at New York University.  He is the author of The Politics of Immigration in France, Britain and the United States: A Comparative Study (New York: Palgrave, 2008/2012); French Communism and Local Power (St. Martin’s, 1985); co-editor and author of Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Europe (Palgrave, 2002); The Politics of Immigration in Western Europe (Cass, 1994); and co-editor of Europe Without Borders: Remapping Territory, Citizenship, and Identity in a Transnational Age (Johns Hopkins, 2003).  He has also pub­lished numerous scholarly articles on politics and immigration in Europe and the United States, the politics of the extreme right in France, and immigration and the European Union.  He has taught in France, and lectured through­out Eu­rope.  Professor Schain is the founder and former director of the Center for European Studies at NYU, and former chair of the European Union Studies Association.  He is co-editor of the transatlantic scholarly journal, Comparative European Politics

The 37th Meeting of the Politics of Race, Immigration, and Ethnicity Consortium (PRIEC)

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University of California, San Diego
Friday, May 23, 2014—12:00 pm-7:30 pm
ROOM: The Village at Torrey Pines, 15th Floor

Co-sponsored by: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies (CCIS),
Department of Political Science, and the Department of Sociology

MEETING AGENDA

12:00-12:20 pm LUNCH AND INTRODUCTION

12:20-2:45 pm PANEL 1

1. David FitzGerald, Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policies in the Americas

2. Tom Wong, Mike Nicholson and Nazita Lajevardi, “Immigrants, Citizens, and (Un)Equal Representation”

3. John Griffin, Zoltan Hajnal, Brian Newman, and David Searle, “Understanding Bias in Responsiveness in American Politics”

4. Ben Newman, “Diversity of a Different Kind: Gentrification and Its Impact on Social Capital and Political Participation in Black Communities”

5. Mackenzie Israel-Trummer “Facing a Black Woman: the Irrational Response to Underperforming White Male Incumbents”

6. Jennifer Merolla, Karthick Ramarkishnan and Chris Haynes, “Framing Immigration Reform and Amnesty in News Media and Public Opinion”

3:00-3:15 pm Coffee Break

3:15-5:15 pm PANEL 2

7. Melissa Michelson, Nazita Lajevardi and Marianne Marar Yacobian, “The Unbearable Whiteness of Being Middle Eastern: Causes and Effects of the Racialization of Middle Eastern Americans”

8. Francisco Pedraza, “Political exclusion and the “chilling effect” of immigration enforcement on participation in Medicaid”

9. David Ayon, “Reversal of Fortune: Understanding the Contrasting Paths & Effects of Latino Empowerment in California and Texas”

10. Lucila Figueroa, “Support for Latino Politicians and U.S. Norms”

5:30-7:30 pm Reception at Home Plate Sports Café, UCSD

May 28 – Rainer Bauböck – Territorial and Cultural Inclusion: Comparing Citizenship Policies in Europe

CCIS Spring Seminar

Rainer Bauböck, Professor of Social and Political Theory, European University Institute


Wednesday, May 28, 12:00pm 

Territorial and Cultural Inclusion: Comparing Citizenship Policies in Europe

Comparative analyses of citizenship laws have often suggested that these are shaped either by civic or ethnic conceptions of political community. Yet citizenship laws pursue many different purposes that cannot be captured by a civic-ethnic dichotomy. As Rainer Bauböck  and Maarten Vink  have shown in a 2013 paper, territorial and ethnocultural inclusion are better understood as independent dimensions that generate four different citizenship regimes: those that are either ethnoculturally or territorially inclusive, expansive regimes that combine both types of inclusion and isolationist ones that are restrictive on both. In a new paper (co-authored with Costica Dumbrava),  fuzzy set QCA methodology is used to examine the conditions under which states are likely to fall into one of these four categories.


Rainer BaubockRainer Bauböck holds a chair in social and political theory at the Department of Political and Social Sciences of the European University Institute. He is on leave from the Austrian Academy of Sciences. His research interests are in normative political theory and comparative research on democratic citizenship, European integration, migration, nationalism and minority rights. Together with Jo Shaw (University of Edinburgh) and Maarten Vink (University of Maastricht), he coordinates the European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship at http://eudo-citizenship.eu.

May 19 – Scott Blinder – A Public of Two Minds: Opposition to Immigration and Support for Extreme Right Parties – CCIS Spring Seminar

Scott Blinder, Director of the Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford

Monday, May 19, 12:00pm 
*Lunch will be provided

“A Public of Two Minds: Social Norms, Opposition to Immigration and Support for Extreme Right Parties” The politics of immigration in Europe presents a two-sided puzzle: with anti-immigration sentiments so strong and widespread, why do most anti-immigration parties fail? And, on the other side, why does anti-immigration sentiment persist despite broad acceptance of anti-prejudice norms?  Scott Blinder accouts for these tensions by developing a dual process model of political behavior. Negative socially-shared understandings of “immigrants” shape underlying attitudes, but at the same time internalized anti-prejudice norms provide sharp limits on how far these underlying attitudes can shape political behavior. Supporting evidence comes from original surveys conducted in Britain and Germany, with embedded survey experiments, as well as automated textual analysis of 58,000 articles in British newspapers that mention immigration.

Blinder-migobs Scott Blinder is currently Director of the University of Oxford’s Migration Observatory, a project of COMPAS (Centre on Migration, Policy and Society). In the fall he will take up a faculty position in the Department of Political Science at UMass-Amherst. Blinder’s research focuses mainly on attitudes toward immigration and integration, with a particular interest in how the social norm against prejudice shapes both positive and negative responses to national, ethnic, and religious differences. He also leads a project that monitors and analyzes media coverage of migration, and has conducted work explaining the gender gap in partisanship in the US. His work has appeared in leading academic journals in the US and UK and has been discussed in a wide variety of venues by NGOs, civil servants, and government ministers.

 

April 16 – Celia Falicov and Ellen Beck – Providing Culturally Responsive and Empowering Services for Latino Families – CCIS Spring Seminar

 

Celia Falicov, Clinical Professor, UCSD Family & Preventive Medicine & UCSD Psychiatry
Ellen Beck, Clinical Professor, UCSD Family & Preventive Medicine
Lunch will be provided

A variety of professionals such as health and mental health providers, teachers and lawyers will increasingly work with Latino immigrants of various generations. The commonly used, one-size fits all conceptual and practice approach is insufficient to provide effective services. The more recent “cultural competence” emphasis on ethnic characteristics is often formulaic and stereotyped.This discussion presents a strength-based framework that takes the complexities of cultural diversity and ecological stressors into account, with an emphasis on the impact of migration on core family relationships, such as parent-child and couples.

Celia Jaes Falicov, Ph.D. is a renowned family therapy author, teacher, and clinician, widely respected for her expertise on immigrant families and particularly Latino families. She is Clinical Professor, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine & Psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego. She is Past President of the American Family Therapy Academy. Dr. Falicov, who grew up in Argentina, received a Ph.D. in Human Development, the University of Chicago. She has pioneered writings on family transitions, migration, culture and context in clinical practice and has received many professional awards for her distinguished contributions. Her books include Cultural Perspectives in Family Therapy; Family Transitions: Continuity and Change over the Life Cycle, and the widely praised Latino Families in Therapy (2nd Edition, 2014).
Dr. Ellen Beck is Director of Medical Student Education for the Division of Family Medicine at UCSD School of Medicine.  A family physician, she is Co-Founder and Director of the UCSD Student-Run Free Clinic Project,  Director of the national faculty development program, Addressing the Health Needs of the Underserved, as well as a  yearlong Fellowship in Underserved Health Care, the first in the nation.

Dr. Beck and her programs have won awards including the 2013 Kennedy Center/Steven Sondheim Inspirational Teacher Award, 2012 WebMD Magazine Health Hero Award, 2010 James Irvine Foundation California Leadership Award, 2010 KPBS Local Hero Diversity Award, 2008 LEAD San Diego Visionary Award for Diversity, Norman Cousins Award for a medical education program that fosters relationship-centered care, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine national Innovation award. The free clinic project was featured in a PBS special on integrative medicine called The New Medicine.

 

Co-sponsored by 


For arrangements to accommodate a disability, contact the Office for Students with Disabilities at  deaf-hohrequest@ucsd.edu or (858) 534-9709 (TTY).

April 10 – Foreign Detachment: The Making and Unmaking of Cross-Border Ties – Research Seminar

Thursday, April 10th, 12:30pm
Social Science Building, Room 101

This event is jointly sponsored by the UCSD Sociology Department and CCIS.


rogerRoger Waldinger is a Distinguished Professor of Sociology at UCLA. He has worked on international migration throughout his career, writing on a broad set of topics, including immigrant entrepreneurship, labor markets, assimilation, the second generation, high-skilled immigration, immigration policy, and public opinion. The author of six books, most recently, How the Other Half Works: Immigration and the Social Organization of Labor (University of California Press, 2003), he is a 2008 Guggenheim Fellow; his research has been supported by grants from the Ford, Haines, Mellon, National Science, Sloan and Russell Sage Foundations.