Mahmood Iqbal, The Conference Board of Canada
Summary: This paper (primarily based on the Conference Board study) is a comprehensive examination of brain drain. First, it provides the significance of the issue from Canadian perspective. Then it provides an historical view of overall migration between Canada and the United States. It also provides data on immigrants in Canada from other parts of the world. It then looks at the recent trend in emigration (both permanent and non-permanent or temporary) of highly educated and skilled Canadians to the United States and examines its significance in a broader economic context. Using national data, the paper also provides empirical evidence of factors responsible for brain drain and establishes a quantitative link between the trend and its determinants. Since the tax-wedge between Canada and US is often identified as the main determinant of brain drain, details on differences in personal taxes of the two countries also are provided.